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Enlightenment Ideas

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Christina Lami

on 20 January 2016

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Transcript of Enlightenment Ideas

The BIG THREE challenged the "absolute power" of the Monarchs
Enlightenment Ideas Strikes Again

Enlightenment Ideas + Absolute Monarchs = Revolution
Social Structure: Nobility owned land which employed serfs, those serfs would fight in the army

Fredrick I (father) made sure to keep the nobility on a tight leash why???
Background: Maria Teresa, trouble keeping control of all nationalities and languages of the people
strong central government
improved the conditions of the serfs
1740: War broke out between Prussia and Austria
Why: The succession to the Austrian throne (issue: Marie Theresa)
Conflict broke out in North America and India
North America: French and Indian War (Britain Vs France)
India: conflict broke out over the Madras port city (Britain and France )
Fredrick II of Prussia

Monarchs and Enlightenment Ideas
Seven Years War
that spread across the globe
French Revolution
Fredrick II of Prussia
Joseph II of Austria

created by

BFFS with
Galileo Galilei

Isaac Newton discovered
Universal Laws of Gravity

Rene Decartes
" I think, therefore I am "
emphasized the importance of his own mind, accepting only those things that his reason said were true

The mind can not be doubted but the body and material world can, the two must be radically different: Separation of mind and body
Francis Bacon
Created: Scientific Method
collecting and analyzing and gathering evidence

Scientist should not rely on the ideas of ancient authorities

Inductive Reasoning:
knowledge of the natural world should be achieved through observation and experimentation
Charles-Louis de Secondat, the baron de

Wrote "Spirit of the Laws" (1748)
Find the natural laws that govern the social and political relationship of human beings
England's government (example) broken up into three branches
Courts of Laws

The government functioned through Separation of Powers
Limits and controls each others systems with checks and balances preventing one group from gaining too much power
Francois-Marie Arouet ( Voltaire)
Government and Church's authority within the government
He challenged the church's authority through the influence in the government (king)
He believed that people should fight for religious tolerance and freedom
Deism: reason and natural law built on the idea of the universal clock
Clock Theory
the mechanic (God) had created the universe
God, the clock maker, had created it, set it in motion, and allowed it to run without interference and according to its own natural laws
Denis Diderot
Contributed to the

28 volumes of knowledge
change the general way of thinking
How does the Encyclopedia attack government or even relate to the other philosophers?

Joseph II of Austria
Catherine the Great II of Russia
Adam Smith
attacked government through social economics
Identifying the natural economics laws that governed human society
If individuals were free to pursue their own economic self-interest, all of society would benefit

the state, then, should not interrupt the free play of natural economic forces by imposing regulations on the economy

concept that the state should not impose government regulations but should leave the economy alone
"To let (people) do (What they want)"
Wrote "Wealth of Nations"
Government has three basic roles
protecting society from invasions
( function of an army)
Defend citizens from injustice
(functions of police)
keep up on certain public works that private individuals alone cannot afford
(road and canals etc)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind

People adopted laws and government in order to preserve their private property

People became enslaved by the government and needed to

The Social Contract
concept that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will and all individuals should be forced to abide(follow) by since it represents what is best for the entire community
" This means nothing less than that(they) will be forced to be free, Thus, liberty is achieved by being forced to follow what is best for" "general will" because the general will represents what is best for the entire community"
Enlightenment Prompted
Natural Rights

Religious Worship
Speech & Press
Assembly & Hold Property
Pursuit of Happiness

Guided Focus Questions
What are two ways in which philosophies sought to change the world?
What roles did Adam Smith believe the government should fulfill in society ?

Last part of the Terror
800+ executed a month
Robespierre declares a new holiday of the Cult of Supreme Being
New god = the Goddess of Reason
Robespierre threatens people with a new list of traitors – everyone is afraid
Robespierre is arrested & executed

The Great Terror

Robespierre starts using martial law
Suspends constitution
Use of police spies
Press is censored
Anyone against government
(or Robespierre) is killed

The Terror

Some are sickened
Robespierre decides no more room for king
Louis dies = France a republic
Jacobins – call for more blood
Girondins – call to slow bloodshed

Reaction to Massacre

Calls for people to fight Austria
Worried about the political prisoners
If freed, will help Austrians
Marat tells the people to kill all of the prisoners
San-culottes do it

September Massacre

Jacobins – radical
Leader = Robespierre
Girondins – moderate
Leader = Danton
The 2 groups fight for control of the national government

Opinions in the National Assembly

Concern that Louis & Marie Antoinette are helping the Austrians
Concern that foreign troops are getting close
People attack castle, kill guards, and capture Louis
Robespierre sees need for the death of the king – if alive…


Internal Issues
Traitors handled by guillotine
Supposed to be more humane
External Issues
Nat’l Assembly worried Austria will attack to restore Louis to power
They decide to attack Austria first

Issues for the National Assembly

People hear about party at Versailles where the Tricolor is trampled
King moves troops towards Paris
People are starving & under pressure
The poissardes go to Versailles to riot
With a mob outside his door, King Louis XVI signs the Declaration of the Rights of Man

Bread March

National Assembly writes the Declaration of the Rights of Man
All men are equal
King not mentioned
Robespierre frees the press
Marat runs L’Ami du Peuple
Angry newspaper that printed conspiracies against revolution

Push for Freedom

Finance minister Necker is fired
Gov’t official sympathetic to 3rd Estate
People get angry & storm the Bastille for ammunition
Intro of the Tricolor flag
Destroy the Bastille
A negative symbol of feudalism
A prison known for torture

Storming the Bastille

King summons troops to stop 3rd Estate from meeting
3rd Estate = Revolutionary forces = National Assembly
Revolutionary forces form a Revolutionary Guard
Took guns to protect themselves
No ammo

Tensions build

1st Estate – Clergy
2nd Estate – Nobility
3rd Estate – Everyone else
First 2 estates = 3% of population
2/3 of vote in government
3rd Estate = 97% of population
1/3 of vote in government

The 3 Estates


The Terror is over when its leader is dead
France is left as a republic, for now…

The End

Girondin leader Danton thinks the Terror has done its job
Enough, end it
Robespierre disagrees
Danton is killed


Rules France during the Terror
12 men – Robespierre in charge
Called for even more blood
Attempted to de-Christianize France
Some success against foreign invaders
Able to maintain order through Terror

Committee of Public Safety

Some begin to fight the Revolution (Robespierre & National Assembly)
People are also fighting invading forces from Austria, Prussia, & England
To deal with this…

Everyone’s Fighting

Marie Antoinette beheaded
Was a symbol of court culture

The End of the Royal Court

Marat calls for people’s heads in his paper

Marat is killed

Becomes a legend, a saint

The Martyr

Men who wear full pants (v. the knee pants nobles wore)
To show they are of the people
Sans-culottes take over the Paris gov’t

Taking Sides

Mob forces King & Queen to Paris
Robespierre becomes head of the National Assembly
France is now a constitutional monarchy
Louis is forced to sign laws
Decides he needs outside help
Tries to escape to Austria
Arrested on the way = Prisoner king

Shift in Power

Meeting of the Estates General (all 3)
Robespierre suggests taxes for more than just the 3rd Estate
Next day – 3rd Estate is locked out
Tennis Court Oath
3rd Estate goes to tennis court nearby
Agree to continue meeting until they have a constitution
This group will become the National Assembly

Tennis Court Oath

King Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette live in luxury in the palace at Versailles

Basic French citizen is starving
1 month of $ for bread

Situation at the Beginning

Fredrick II
educated in the new
"enlightenment ideas"

he granted freedom of speech and press to the people, along with religious tolerance
BUT still kept the same social structure
Joseph II (son)
abolished serfdom
eliminated death penalty
promotes equalities for all
enacted religious tolerance and reform
All of his new policies and reforms failed
because he alienated the nobility

Alienated Catholic Church
the newly freed serfs did not understand the concept of being free
Why was this his down fall?
He know he failed as a king
his grave it says
"Here lies Joseph II, who was unfortunate in all his enterprises"

Catherine the Great II of Russia
Background: After Peter the Great, Russia had 6 horrible successors to the throne. The people, along with the nobility killed all six of the successors #WHOISNEXT
Catherine was the wife of Peter the Great (1762-1796)

she favored the enlightenment ideas
she wanted to create a new code for all of the people to live equal among each other
She always had to please the nobility with policies that favored only them
Peasants rebelled against Catherine, she was able to squash the rebellion
She was tired of focusing on the people, so she turned her effort to expand her empire this clashed with Austria and Prussia
How were European rulers guided by Enlightenment thought? Give examples
Discuss one example of an 18Th century monarch and explain how he or she full filled or failed to fulfill this ideal?
1740 - 1756
The War of Austrian Succession

Charles VI died without an male heir to the throne
His daughter had the right to the Austrian throne
chaos and confusion broke out in the Austrian empire and abroad
Frederick II took advantage of the situation in Austria
He invaded the province of Silesia (section of Austrian empire)
(which was taken from him)
He refused to recognize the empress of Austria Marie
She is a women after all
France entered the war against Austria (allied with Prussia)
Great Britain came to the aid of Austria
Great Britain and France are rivals

Chain Reaction
1748: All countries were exhausted
Treaty of Aix-la Chapelle
guaranteed all territories return back to all original owners (Silesia belongs to Prussia)
Prussia still would not recognize Marie has the rightful heir the throne
Prussia will not back down
Marie continued to build up her army, due to the fact Prussia would not back off
France is NOW allied with Austria
1756: she began to defend and take back her province of Silesia
Who will Britain allied with NOW ?
New Alliance
Austria & France
Britain, Russia & Prussia
Topic: James II and Glorious Revolution
Song: Beat it by Micheal Jackson
Topic: Louis XIV & Absolute power
It's good to be King by Tom Petty

Topic: Palace of Versailles
Song: WE Built this City by Starship
Topic: The Rise of Louis XIV
Song: The House of the Rising Sun by Animals
Full transcript