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Transcript of Neoplasia
Development of Cancer
Cancer develops from abnormalities at the DNA level
Response to Cancer
General Systemic Effects of Cancer
Names of neoplasms often describe the site of origin of the cancerous cells, and if it is benign vs. malignant (e.g., -oma vs. carcinoma/sarcoma)
Benign & Malignant Neoplasms
How to Blow a Chance at Apoptosis
Do not invade surrounding tissue
Have a capsule
Do not metastasize
Rarely demonstrate necrosis or ulceration
Do not have systemic effects
Your 17-yr-old patient has been diagnosed with a meningioma. The patient's parent says, "I just do not understand. Since it is not cancer, why do they have to operate? I am worried sick at the thought of them cutting open my child's head, if it is not cancer!"
Reply as if you are talking directly to the parent.
NRS 233 - Pathophysiology II
Neoplasms can cause obstruction & destroy organ function
Your 42-yr-old patient was diagnosed with
. The teenaged child of the patient says, "I know my parent has cancer, but what exactly does that long word mean?"
Reply as if you are talking directly to the child.
The acquisition of specific cell functions
Reproduction of new cells through cell division -
(develop or replace lost or damaged normal tissues) &
(eggs & sperm)
The most fundamental aspect of
cell cycle control
is the regulation of
Terms used to describe detailed aspects of cellular reproduction & growth:
Most common sites of cancer origin in USA - 2015
Cells poorly differentiated/immature - "
Invade adjacent tissue (
) & spread to distant sites (
Metastasize to LN and distant tissues
Demonstrate necrosis & ulceration
Have systemic effects
Benign & malignant neoplasms have different characteristics
How poorly differentiated the cells are -
"Degree of Anaplasia"
The location and pattern of spread of a tumor
Grading System of the
American Joint Committee on Cancer
- Grade cannot be assessed
- Well differentiated (low grade)
- Moderately differentiated (intermediate grade)
- Poorly differentiated (high grade)
- Undifferentiated (high grade)
TNM Classification System
T = Size of tumor
The higher the T number, the larger the tumor and/or the more it has grown into nearby tissue
N = Lymph node involvement
The larger the N number, the more extensive the lymph node involvement
M = Metastasis
The higher the M number, the more extensive the metastasis
Tumor Suppressor Genes
Phases of the Cell Cycle
G0 (Resting state)
The cell must leave this resting state to enter the cell cycle
G1 (Gap 1)
G2 (Gap 2)
Cells can become trapped in any stage of the cell cycle, but they do not reverse the process and go back to G0
Theories of Carcinogenesis
Additional mutations = malignancy
Activation of telomerase gene
Cancer cells are considered immortal
Response to Diagnosis & Treatment
Emotional, relational, financial
Chemotherapy & radiation
Copstead, L. & Banasik, J. (2018).
(6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Giddens, J. (2016).
Concepts for nursing practice
(2nd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
YouTube videos from Kahn Academy embedded on some slides.
Talk to a Family Member
Talk to the Parent
The Development of Colorectal Cancer
Many cancers occur as genetic mutations inappropriately:
Inactivate tumor suppressor genes