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United States History Core 100 NCSCS
Transcript of United States History Core 100 NCSCS
Opposed Bank of United States and tariffs
Supported states’ rights
Supported France Supported industry
Supported Bank of United States and tariffs
Supported a strong federal government
Supported Britain Washington asserted Federal Authority Political Parties Sectionalism Permanent Alliances MARBURY v MADISON Midnight Judges Judicial Review Louisiana Purchase Went against Jefferson's Democratic-Republican ideals... WHY? Sent to buy New Olreans for $10 Million
Came back with Louisiana for $15 million Where is this power in the Constitution? War of 1812 Who? U.S. v Britain Over? Impressment Embargo Act War Hawks Didn't work New Orleans War didn't go well for US US won this battle...
after theWar was over Hartford Convention New England Federalist meeting OPPOSED to War of 1812 Led to belief New England planned to Secede
Downfall of Federalist Party Warned Against: Goal 2 Jefferson and Madison American System Missouri Compromise Monroe Doctrine Eli Whitney Cotton Kingdom Indian removal issues Tarriff Controversy Pet Banks Cultural Nationalism Mexican War Henry Clay Three Parts: Tarriffs National Bank Internal Improvements to help help industry SLAVERY Kept balance of Power Missouri Slave, Maine Free Mason-Dixon Line 36 30' o James Monroe was president Warned European powers from getting involved in Western Hemisphere Cotton Gin incresed demand for cotton increased reliance on slaves President Jackson easier to remove indians than to protect them Indian Removal Act of 1830 Worchester v. Georgia Trail of Tears Indians were to be moved to present day Oklahoma. The Cherokee decided to fight the Act Cherokee wanted to fight being forced to move They claimed they were an Independent Nation. The Court AGREED be forced to move. and said they should NOT 4000 Cherokee Died Forced movement of the Cherokee people Jackson IGNORED the courts decision http://lazerbrody.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/trail_of_tears.jpg South Carolina Exposition and Protest - tariffs were unfair and unconstitutional - Tariff of 1828 - Tariff of Abominations Another tariff was passed in 1832 South Carolina Nullification Crisis Jackson threatens to use Federal Troops President jackson Thought Bank of US unconstitutional. also thought it caused the panic of 1819 McCulloch v. maryland said national bank WAS contstitutional Election of 1832 Jackson won took money out of Second BUS put it into PET BANKS Panic of 1837 in art and literature Noah Webster Blue-Backed Speller An American Dictionary of the English Language American Writting Washington Irving Edgar Allen Poe Nathanial Hawthorne Knickerbocker School Showed the American way of life horror stories James Fennimore Cooper Hudson River School of Art NeoCLassical Architecture Expansionism Annexation of Texas Questions about Texas = Mexican territory Gained Independence Texas Wanted to become a part of the United States Led to Mexican American War Ended with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo US gained half of Mexican Territory Mexican Cession http://www.eliwhitney.org/new/sites/default/files/minisites/cotton/patent.html Election of 1824 The Corrupt Bargain Interchangeable parts Goal 3 Goal 4 Goal 5 Popular Sovereignty Abolitionism Third American Party System Dred Scott v. Sandford Abraham Lincoln Emancipation Proclamation Battle of Gettysburg Reconstruction Plans Amendments Compromise of 1877 Jim Crow Laws means that the people vote http://dhyanapeetam.org/web/2010Mar03-Nithyananda-Dhyanapeetam-Press-Release/vote.jpg One majior issue: expansion of slavery Kansas- Nebraska Act Abolish means to get rid of. Abolition was the movement to end SLAVERY http://janicehuse.com/images/FrederickDouglas.jpg http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h2950b.html http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_f_O-Cbvtu8k/SiwNCYYqFiI/AAAAAAAAADo/SlIqwpIOzyI/s400/Grimke-SistersBWjpg Political Parties First Party System Second Party System Democratic-Republicans Federalists Democratic Party Whig Party Now... Deomcrats Republicans Founded on an Anti Slavery platform http://hhssummerreading.wikispaces.com/file/view/uncletoms.jpg/75860023/uncletoms.jpg http://www.archives.gov/research/civil-war/photos/images/civil-war-136.jpg http://stufffromthelab.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/tubman_nps.jpg http://ed101.bu.edu/StudentDoc/current/ED101sp09/ebelinsk/new%20ht%20image.jpg http://ed101.bu.edu/StudentDoc/current/ED101sp09/ebelinsk/new%20ht%20image.jpg Frederick Douglass William Lloyd
Garrison Harriet Beecher Stowe Harriet Tubman John Brown in 1854 Dred Scott v. Sandford Dred Scott was a slave from Missiouri (slave state) He moved with his master to Illinois (free state) Scott sued for his freedom, saying his residence in a FREE STATE made him FREE Court ruled that Scott was a slave, which had the same rights as property. (aka none) The Court also ruled that Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional http://dekerivers.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/abrahamlincoln5-500.jpg Lincoln was nominated by Republican Party for Election of 1860 Republican Party's Platform called for the exclusion of slavery from the territories Lincoln felt slavery was WRONG but that there was nothing he could do about it House Divided Speach Preserve the Union January 1, 1863 Freed slaves ONLY in the Confederate States NOT in the UNited States Lincoln initially sought to preserve the Union this proclamation gave the north a moral cause to fight for Turning point of Civil War Lee, Decided to take fight to the Union three day battle 50,000 casualties BIg Gamble Farthest North the confederacy ever went Lincoln's Plan Andrew Johnson's Plan Radical Republicans "With Malace towards none" required voters to take a loyalty oath and to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment? Wanted to extend the freedman's bureau Gave food, medical aid, and education to freed slaves, and poor whites Carpetbaggers and Scalawags Did not go as smoothly as planned Black Codes Klu Klux Klan sharecropping tenant farming 13th Amendment freed all slaves made the Emancipation proclamation constitutional 14th Amendment Gave rights of citizenship to African Americans 15th Amendment gave voting rights to African AMerican Males ONLY ended Reconstruction Comission had to be appointed to decide election settled election of1876 Election of 1876 Rutherford B. hayes Samuel Tilden hayes agreed to end reconstruction in exchange for votes Segregation laws Also tried to keep African Americans from voting Poll taxes Literacy tests grandfather's clause what years? 1865 - 1877 under military reconstruction, the south was divided into 5 districts governed under martial law All states had returned bu 1870 Motivation for Westward Movement 3 G's od old lory Manifest Destinty Homestead Act small fee and 5 year commitment, settlers given land to farm Morrill Land Grant Act land to states to build colleges Oklahoma Land Rush literally a race for land Mormom Migration Transcontinental Railroad Dawes Act Populism April 12, 1861 March 1861 December 1860 November 1860 July 1, 1861 September 17, 1862 January 1, 1863 May-June 1863 July 1-3, 1863 November 1864 April 9, 1865 April 14, 1865 Lincoln Elected South Carolina Leaves Union Lincoln Inauguration Fort Sumpter Battle of First Bull Run Antietam Emancipation Proclamation Vicksburg Battle of Gettysburg Election of 1864, Lincoln re-elected Lee Surrenders at Appomattox Court House Lincoln Assasinated New Hanover County Schools created by: Chris Blake, Heide trask High School Joseph Smith founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints He claimed to communicate with God and write the word of God he convinced his followers MOVE WEST Smith was killed in Illinois Brigham Young led the Mormons to Salt Lake Valley in Utah Life out west was different Roles of Women, African Americans, and immigrants (irish and chinese) changed union Pacific and Central Railroad met at Promontory Point, Utah Led to Population growth also affected cattle, ranching and mining Assimilation Break up reservation system give land ownership to individual indians part 6 Most land distributed under this act went to white settlers http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/fed-indian-policy/ "The People's Party" demanded direct election of senators enacting state laws through referendums switch from gold standard, Bimetalism Government ownership of railroads, telegraph and telephones government loans for farmers 8 hour workday for industry Break up tribal system by felt that this kept native Americans primative 160 acres Citizenship to those who stayed onl and for 25 yrs and "adopted habits of civilized life" 47 million acres distributed to Indians 90 million to whites "Bury my Heart at Wounded Knee" Omaha Platform Civil War Timeline Goal 6 Goal 7 Goal 8 Goal 9 Goal 10 Goal 11 Goal 12 Influence of Labor Unions Gospel of Wealth Social Darwinism Social Gospel Sherman Immigration Settlement Houses Jane Adams Big Buisness Anti-Trust Act 1880-1920 part 1 Influence of Big Business Labor Unions Sherman Anti-Trust Act Social Darwinism settlement houses Social Gospel Gospel of Wealth Immigration, 1880 - 1920 Robber Barons Steel Andrew Carnegie J.P. Morgan Oil John D. Rockefeller Knights of Labor American Federation of Labor Interstate Commerce Commission Urban Slums Nativism Railroad Vanderbilt
Family The Big Three Businesses & U.S. Steel Captains of Industry or ? Benefited from Bessimer Process STANDARD OIL COMPANY How did they influence society? These men made millions while millions dealt with low wages and poor working conditions New Immigrants vs Old Immigrants Dumbell tennements A response to poor working conditions Major Events and Themes New Nation Nationalism Sectionalism Maifest Destiny Civil War/Reconstruction Expansionism Populism Industrialization Progressivism Imperialism World War I Twenties/Thirties World War II The Cold War Civil Rights Movement Social Movements Vietnam Conservatism New World Order New World Order Post 9/11 child labor, and poor wages a group of workers that uses various methods to gain better working conditions and pay Trade Unions
Craft Unions included many different kinds of workers included workers from the same occupation Samuel Gompers Organization of various craft unions Founded in 1869 over 70,000 members, including women and African Americans outlawed monopolies large corporations had to break up into smaller companies these laws were rarely enforced Government was pro-business at this time U.S. vs. E.C. Knight, Co. E.C. Knight was monopoly (controlled 98% of sugar refining) manufacturing vs. commerce Herbert Spencer applied Darwin's theory of "Survival of the fittest" to human social condition the "fittest" will make more money Some are meant to be "captains of Industry" others are meant to be wage laborers many social reformers went into poor and immigrant neighborhoods wanting to help those less fortunate In many cases they set up Settlement houses which acted as community centers offering daycare, education, and other social services Hull House Jane Addams Chicago focused on the importance of applying Christian Principles to Social problems Linked Christianity to PROGRESSIVE reforms Essay written by Andrew Carnegie in 1901 those with great wealth had equally great obligations to Society rich should use their money to better society but they should be trustees of their money 20 Million immigrants came to America between 1870-1920 Most came from Northern Europe came from Eastern and southern Europe, Asia, Latin America Imperialism Spanish American War Open Door Policy Foreign Policy of the Progressive Era 3 Reasons Alfred Thayer Mahan JOsiah Strong Global Competition Military Strength Demands for resources Belief in American Superiority 1 pushed for growth of the Navy wanted the U.S. to Compete globally a stronger country controlling a weaker territory AND markets As American farms and factories changed they began to produce more than AMERICANS could consume Mercantilism an economic system where colonies provide raw materials and markets for a country 2 3 Social Darwinism Anglo-Saxon Superiority The White Man's Burden spheres of infulence Cubans fought for Independence from Spain U.S.S. Maine Yellow Journalism U.S. felt China should allow open access to their ports Big Stick Diplomacy Muckraking http://books.google.com/books?id=g-dQc4RO7nQC&pg=PA416&lpg=PA416&dq=you+may+recall+the+description+of+the+Man+with+the+Muck-rake,+the+man+who+could+look+no+way+but+downward+with+the+muck-rake+in+his+hands%3B+Who+was+offered+a+celestial+crown+for+his+muck-rake,+but+who+would+neither+look+up+nor+regard+the+crown+he+was+offered,+but+continued+to+rake+to+himself+the+filth+of+the+floor.&source=bl&ots=kRneqvBb-t&sig=PxCNFR66hV9hmXmrUb4h6_wVxwE&hl=en&ei=q1X7S_iGBYP6lwffqZX2Dw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CDgQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q&f=false ... you may recall the description of the Man with the Muck-rake, the man who could look no way but downward with the muck-rake in his hands; Who was offered a celestial crown for his muck-rake, but who would neither look up nor regard the crown he was offered, but continued to rake to himself the filth of the floor.” Jacob Riis Upton Sinclair The Jungle http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/rockefellers/sfeature/sf_7.html Ida Tarbell A history of Standard Oil company How the Other Half Lives Progressive Agenda Progressive Amendments 16 17 18 19 Progressive Party (Bull Moose) Plessy v Ferguson Disenfranchisment Booker T. Washington W.E.B Du Boise Ford Assembly Line Some thought the US should get involved for business reasons. Newspapers srpead stories of POW's dying of hunger and disease Printing sensational reports to influence public opinion Stationed in Cuba, where it exploded 260 Americans killed, Spain blaimed The US went to war with Spain 1st battle was in the Phillipines Admiral George Dewey destroyed Spanish Fleet The Rough Riders organized by Theodore Roosevelt Spain Surrendered July 1898 Treaty of Paris of 1898 granted Cuba Independence "SPLENDID LITTLE WAR" Spain gave Guam and Puerto Rico to US US paid $20 million for Phillipines Secretary of State John Hay Spheres of Influence Annexation of Hawaii Platt Amendment Moral Diplomacy (missionary) the US had an obligation to help these countries Roosevelt Corollary to the monroe doctrine the U.S. had a right to intervene as we saw fit "Big Stick Diplomacy" "speak softly and carry a big stick, and you will go far." DOllar Diplomacy American investment in foreign economies Boxer Rebellion in China - anti foreign influence To Protect Social Welfare To Promote Moral Improvement To create Economic Reform To Foster Efficiency graduated income tax Direct Election of Senators Volstead Act Prohibition prohibited the manufacture sale, and transportation of alcohol women's right to vote roosevelt ran for a third term with Progressive PArty was disastisfied with Taft "Separate but equal" was later overturned by Brown v. Board of Ed. Jim Crow Laws De Jure De Facto Segregation by law "by fact" denying the right to vote Although African Americans had gained the right to vote they were still treated as unequal and methods were put in place to keep them from voting poll taxes, scare tactics, literacy tests African American reformer equality should be achieved economically "the production of our hands" tuskegee Institute technical training Niagra Movement later the NAACP opposed to racial segregation and disenfranchisement AND "accomodation and conciliation" by African American leaders (aka Booker T. Washington) Neutrality to Involvment World War I isolationsism Fourteen Points Treaty of Versailles Espionage and Sedition Act Schenck v. UNited States Eugene v. Debs MAIN causes: Militarism Alliance System Imperialism Nationalism ArchDuke Francis Ferdinand Assasination of Alliances kicked in France Britain Russia VS Germany Austria Hungary 1916 - Wilson Campaigned with "he kept us out of War" European Propaganda meant to persuade Americans The Lusitania (128 Americans killed) 3 things brought the U.S. into war 1 Germany announced it would sink all British Ships within sight of U-Boats 2 ZImmerman Telegram 3 Russian Revolution meant that Russia was now a representative Gov't Law passed to punish those who did not support the war jailed for making a speech about the economic causes of the war. "Clear and Present Danger" The government could place limitations on IF that speech presented a "clear and present danger" Free Speech The U.S. failed to ratify the treaty 1.COUNTRIES SHOULD NOT MAKE SECRET TREATIES WITH ONE ANOTHER
2.FREEDOM ON THE SEAS SHOULD BE MAINTAINED
3.TARIFFS SHOULD BE LOWERED TO PROMOTE FREE TRADE
4.COUNTRIES SHOULD REDUCE THEIR ARMS
5.THE INTERESTS OF THE COLONIAL PEOPLE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED
The next 8 suggested new national boundaries.
14. LEAGUE OF NATIONS Wilson’s plan for peace was called the FOURTEEN POINTS. WIlson wanted "Peace without Victory" Within the U.S. The biggest objection was to the League of Nations The treaty also had a War guilt clause and forced Germany to pay reparations The Us signed a separate treaty in 1921 1920's 1920's Economy Easy credit and Speculation Harlem Renaissance Fundamentalism / Scopes Trial Impact of Mass Media Women in the 1920s Causes of the Great Depression (“flappers”) Hoover’s Response (rugged individualism, volunteerism) Roosevelt’s Response (three “Rs”) New Deal Programs (WPA, TVA, AAA, CCC, and Social Security) Republican presidents Warren G. Harding Calvin Coolidge Herbert Hoover Return to normalcy Pro business Rugged Individualism laissez faire consumerism advertising farmers little government intervention Mass media impacted what people bought. installment plan, easy credit Big business, ads were everywhere Installment plans were readily avaliable. people could "afford" more other forms of credit were also easy to get. experienced hard times Led to unwise investment decisions stock market crash of late 1990's housing market of the 2005 examples: people were blinded by the possibility of making money Buying on Margin putting down very little money, and using it to buy more stock problem no collateral Celebration of African American Culture Harlem area was the center of this movement included MUSIC ART Literature & Langston Hughes Louis Armstrong A fundameltalist Christian movement swept the nation Aimee Semple McPherson Well known Preachers: Billy Sunday former baseball player used "show business" to attract people used entertainment to attract audience Biology Teacher in Tenn. was arressted for teaching Darwins Theory of Evolution Debate between Science and Religion Radio Motion pictures Mass Culture Older generations felt they were improper short dresses speakeasies dances went against acceptable societal norms Speculation Easy Credit Overproduction Hoover felt americans were strong enough to "pull themselves up by their bootstraps" urged Americans, and other organizations (churches) to respond to the needy i the form of soup kitchens and breadlines Hoover Flag Hoover Blanket Hoover was blamed for slow response Hooverville Relief Recovery Reform WPA TVA AAA CCC Social Security Works Progress Administration Tennessee Valley Authority Agircultural Adjustment Act Civilian Conservation COrps Totalitarian Appeasement Munich Pact Neutrality Acts Lend-Lease Act Pearl Harbor D-Day Island Hopping Turning Points - World War II World War II Manhattan Project War Japanese Internment Korematsu v. U.S. Containment Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan NATO Korean War Cuban Missile Crisis Leading to War world war II US Invo in lve ment World War II II World War II World War II World War II World War II World War II World War II World War II World War * * * * * * * * * War at Home Women Rationing G.I. Bill Post World War II International Organizations SEATO United Nations on the Home Front Germany Resented reparations and War GUilt Clause blamed them for economic problems World Wide Economic Recession Governments Nazis Facists Communists Germany Italy Russia Soviet Union Developed a Non-Agression Pact with Germany. even though they were ideologically different http://brokenworld.wikispaces.com/file/view/sudetenland_1938.gif/30586434/sudetenland_1938.gif Germany Invaded the Sudetenland claimed he was only taking what was rightfully German IN an attempt to maintain PEACE Great Britain and France developed the Munich Pact. It was appeasment - an attempt to keep a war from staRTING. pROBLEMS? iT DIDN'T WORK!!!! oNLY MADE GERMANY bOLDER! nEUTrality Acts Passed to maintain Isolation Allowed the U.S. to supply arms and ships for the war December 7, 1941 Japanese attack U.S. Naval Base at Pearl Harbor Catalyst for U.S. Entry into War take over islands as US crosses pacific WHY? Military bases and airstrips 150,000 troops led by Dwight D. Eisenhower landed at Normandy on June 6, 1944 General Patton then took over to lead troops to Germany. El Alamein decisice allied victory in Northern Africa Afrika Corps (axis) soon surrendered Battle of the Bulge German Response to D-Day the final German Assault Became clear Germany would Surrender Midway major Naval Battle in Pacific considered turning point of Pacific theater Chester Nimitz & Douglas McCarthur (Navy) (marine Corps) Chester Nimitz & Douglas McCarthur (Navy) (marine Corps) part of the island hopping campaign Stalingrad Over 2 million people killed turning point of Eastern theater Ultra top secret program to develop Atomic Bomb U.S. Bombed Hiroshima August 6, 1945 then bombed NAgasaki 3 days later Japanese Surrenederd August 15, 1945 with men gone to fight, women were forced to take a larger role in society passed to help soldiers returning to the U.S after War. education, loans for homes Office of Price Administration War Production Board familes given coupons to purchase rare goods controlled what industires produced about 100,000 Japanese sent to camps Attack on Pearl harbor lead to fear and resentment In Kroematsu v. US courts said U.S. was justified due to "Military necessity" idea that we had to stop spread of Communism domino theory promised support to those who resited communism promised economic aid to help rebuild War torn Europe North American Treay Organization Defensive treaty - Western Europe South-east Asia Treaty Organization Anti-Communist Anti-COmmunist World Security 1949 1954 1945 International Peacekeeping Organization Security Council has 5 permanent members United States
China June, 1950 NOrth Korea invaded South Korea Gen. Douglas MacArthur led UN troops U.S. didn't want another Communist nation stalemate in 1953 - technically still going on no peace treaty Soviet Missiles were being installed in CUBA..... U.S. and Soviet Union almost went to war 1962 Kennedy demanded they be removed nuclear war McCarthyism Sputnik War Powers Act Cesar Chavez Feminine Mystique Nixon Diplomacy Watergate Scandal Civil Rights Movement Vietnam War Betty Friedan Sen. Joseph McCarthy Red Scare The House Un-American Activities Commission McCarthy lead a witchhunt for communist within American Society Not directly associated with McCarthy Brown v. Board of Education reversed Plessy v. Ferguson separate is "inherently unequal" Little Rock Nine nine African American students enrolled at Little Rock Central High School Initially prevented from attending by Gov. President Eisenhower intervened Montgomery Bus Boycott Rosa Parks refused to move she was arrested, which led to a bus boycott Greensboro Sit-in Freedom Riders March on Washington Martin Luther King, Jr Minister in Montgomery became inportant civil rights leader Civil Disobedience Malcolm X supported self defense "don't just take it" Black Power Movement response to police brutality and urged violent resistance first Satellite in space launched by the Soviet Union Started "Space Race" Containment Gulf of Tonkin Resolutions used to get the U.S. more involved in war Gave Johnson broad Military power My Lai Us troops masacred 100 Vietnamese civilians Student Protests Kent State 4 students killed by national guard Mexican American Labor Leader Organized National Farm Workers Association "Women are leading Lives of QUiet Desperation" Founded "National Organization for Women" Prevents the President from committing troops without approval from congress Claimed he had information regarding Communists in the American Government October 4th, 1957 NASA oversaw various Space prgrams starting in 1958 National Defense Education Act sought to improve education in math, science and foreign language Living Room War Led strikes and boycotts Women's rights movement Women were being forced to live and be identified through their families Détente means an easing of tensions China Nixon visited & Soviet Union SALT ( I & II) Strategic Arms limitations Treaty limited ICBM's and manufacture of nucleaer weapons Intercontenental Ballistic Missiles Nixon was paranoid Shortly after start of 2nd Term, became known that member of Creep had broken into DNC headquarters committee to re-elect the president Media played a big role. Nixon was eventually linked to the breakin and linked to the cover-up He resigned on August 9, 1974 Camp David Accords Iran Contra Affair Title IX NAFTA Three Mile Island 9/11 Affirmative action President Jimmy Carter tried to bring peace to the middle east invited Anwar El-Sadat Egypt & Menachem Begin Israel Iran Hostage Crisis Religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini took power from Shah of Iran Shah Came to U.S. for Cancer treatment, followers of Khomeini took U.S. Embassy took 70 HOstages did not end until Reagan's Inauguration failed attempts to resuce Civil War in Nicaragua Contras vs. Sandinistas U.S. Supported communist group Congress banned funding for the Contras U.S. Gov't sold missiles to Iran and sent the money to the Contras Education Amendments Act of 1972 outlawed gender discrimination in school activities number of female athletes 300,000 to over 2 Million has grown from Reaganomics Reaganomics Reaganomics Reaganomics ********** ********** ********** ********** ********** ********** supply side economics trickle-down economics deregulation of businesses and tax cuts idea was that: more money in the pockets of Americans would lead to more consumer spending and boost the economy O R M E R I C A N T H R E E R A D E G R E E M E N T After Energy Crisis in 1970's National Energy Act Passed. Department of Energy Created created to find alternative energy sources solar and nuclear Nuclear Scare when reactor failed at Three Mile Island A series of Coordinated attacks against the U.S. Hijackers took control of four airplanes Crashed 2 into the World Trade Center towers the third into the pentagon, and the fourth was taken back by passengers, and crashed in a field. Regents v. Bakke Put in place by JOhn F. Kennedy to increase opportunities for minorities Reverse Descrimination? Bakke claimed only reason he was denied admission to UNiversity of California was that he was white court ruled in his favor and struck down quota system 1978 please email me with any comments or suggestions firstname.lastname@example.org "the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/trudoc.asp hello