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The States of Matter

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by

Nicole Bailey

on 27 October 2014

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Transcript of The States of Matter

Summarizer
Essential Question:
What are the states of matter and how do their particles move?
Green Slime
Make Green Slime
STEPS
1. In a plastic cup, mix together one tablespoon of glue, one tablespoon of water, and one drop of green food coloring. ( I will be dropping the food coloring into your bowls for you).
2. In a separate plastic cup, dissolve(stir) one teaspoon of borax powder in one teaspoon of water. (I have already placed the borax powder in the cup for you.)
3. Pour the Borax solution into glue mixture cup. Mix together with spoon- a "slime" should form instantly.
4. Place your slime into zip lock bag and seal it
5. Clean up your area and wash off hands with wet ones provided.
6. Answer the questions on your Notes under the section called "Activator"
Vocabulary
The Solid State
What are solids? What do the particles in solid look like?
Solids
The State of matter with a definite SHAPE and VOLUME
Liquid State
How do you think the particles in a liquid will differ from the particles in a solid?
The States of Matter:
The physical forms in which a substance can exist.
Materials
Wood Glue
Borax Powder
Green Food Coloring
Water
Spoons
Plastic Cups
Tablespoon & Teaspoon Measurement Tools
Wet Ones
Zip Lock Bags
The particles(the atoms or molecules in the solid)
Particles are very close together
Particles in a solid do MOVE!
Particles in a solid do not move fast enough to beat out the attraction between them (that is why they stay so close together!)
Each particle vibrates in place because it is locked in position by the particles around it
The Gas State
Liquids
The state in which matter takes the shape of its container and has a definite VOLUME
Liquids change shape but NOT volume


The atoms or molecules in a liquid:
Move fast enough to overcome some of the
attractions between them
Particles slide past each other until the liquid
takes shape of its container
How do you think the particles in a gas will differ from the other states of matter that we have already discussed?
Gases
The state of matter that changes in both shape and volume
The particles:
Move fast enough to break away from one another
There are empty spaces between particles
Particles move independently of one another
Plasmas
The state of matter that does not have a definite shape or volume and whose particles have been broken apart.
Properties of Plasmas:
-Conduct Electric Current(Gases do not)
-Affected by Electric and Magnetic fields (Gases are not)
Changes of Matter

The conversion of a substance from one physical form to another
All changes of state are PHYSICAL CHANGES!!!
(the identity of a substance does not change)
This should look familiar! Water can change to 3 states of water and still will be considered water!
What's Energy Got to do With It?
When a state changes so does its ENERGY!
Energy of Movement=Kinetic Energy
The Energy of a substance is related to the motion of its particles
Particles either speed up or slow down when it changes from state to state
Thermal Energy (Heat), a type of Kinetic Energy, affects the states of matter
Temperature is also factor that affects the states of matter
Melting: Solids to Liquids
Freezing: Liquids to Solids
Vaporization: Liquids to Gases
Condensation: Gases to Liquids
Sublimation: Solids Directly to Gases
Let's Review
That was a lot of information!
Let's see what you can remember!
Let's Get Visual!
Why does it
Matter
???!!!
-Matter= anything that has volume and mass
-Matter consists of tiny little particles known as atoms or molecules
-These little particles are in CONSTANT motion
-The state matter is in is determined by:
1. How fast the particles are moving
2. The attraction between these particle
So Let's Talk Slime:
The change of state from a solid to a liquid
Melting Point

The Temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid
Vary widely (things like table salt is very hard to melt)
Characteristic property of a substance because melting points do not change with different amounts of substances
Can be used to identify substances
Energy
For solids to melt, particles overcome some
of their attractions
When a solid is at its melting point, any
energy it absorbs increases the motion of its
particles until they overcome the attractions that
hold them in place
Melting is an endothermic change because energy
is being absorbed by the substance as it changes
The change of state from a liquid to a solid
Freezing Point

The temperature at which a liquid changes into a solid
The reverse of Melting- Freezing and melting occur at the same temperature
If energy is added
at 0 degrees Celsius,
the ice will melt.
If energy is removed
at 0 degrees Celsius,
the liquid will freeze.
Energy
For a liquid to freeze, the motion of its particles must slow down to the point where attractions between them overcome their motion
Exothermic change because energy is removed from, or taken out of the substance it changes
The change of state from a liquid to a gas
Boiling
Vaporization that occurs
throughout a liquid
The temperature at
which a liquid boils is called
its BOILING POINT
This is another
characteristic property of a
substance
The boiling point of water
is 100 Degrees Celsius
Evaporation
Vaporization that
occurs at the surface
of a liquid below
its boiling point
Explains why water
in a glass on a table
disappears after several
days
The change of state from a gas to a liquid
Condensation Point: The temperature at which the gas becomes a liquid and is the same temperature as the boiling point at a given pressure
For a gas to become a liquid large numbers of particles must clump together when the attraction between particles becomes stronger
Energy is removed from gas to slow particles down
Exothermic Change
Endothermic change because energy is coming in!
Gaseous water in the air will become liquid when it contacts a cool surface.
The change of state from a solid directly into a gas
One example of this is Dry Ice
Which of the ingredients of your slime did you consider to be a solid? a liquid? a gas?
Based on the movement of your slime which state of matter would you consider the slime to be in?
What can you say about the States of Matter based off making your own slime?
Did you know: The glue and borax mix together to make a new chemical-the slime! The borax stops the glue flowing like a liquid. The slime is very elastic, so it can even bounce if you roll into a ball!
Dry Ice is Carbon Dioxide in the solid state. It is colder than ice and it doesn't melt in apuddle of liquid, instead it turns directly into a gas. Used to keep food, medicine, and other materials cold without getting them wet.
Sublimation is an Endothermic Change
Particles move from being very tight to being very spread apart. A lot of energy is added.
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