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East Asia 1750 - 1900
Transcript of East Asia 1750 - 1900
Main Civilizations of East Asia
(1750 - 1900)
Qing Dynasty (China 1644-1912)
Meiji Dynasty (Japan 1868-1912)
Choson Dynasty (Korea 1392-1910)
by Tomer Krayzman, Daniel Kluzner, and Nadia Lezcano
Rise of the Qing Dyansty:
The Ming Dynasty began to fall during the 16th century after trade began to be disrupted by pirates and suffered from corrupt leaders. After a series of famines struck the Ming Dynasty, rebel forces captured Beijing. Manchu forces from the north allied with the army loyal to the Ming dynasty to protect the capital from the rebels. While the capital was proteted, the Manchus didn't wish to restore Ming rule and displaced the dynasty.
The Manchus renamed the dynasty to Qing ("pure").
Qing - Economic
Their economic status were influenced heavily by others outside China. Agricultural production increased dramatically, global trade was rather profitable for China and brought in a lot of wealth for their growing population. American food crops were introduced to China which helped improve their agricultural status.
After U.S. warships invaded the Tokyo bay and intimidated their current Shogun into signing unfair treaties, forces opposing in Japan rose up and over took the Shogun giving power to a new Shogun in the Meiji era. Also called the Meiji Restoration.
**China initially wanted peace and for the cost of "peace" they signed the Nanjing Treaty in 1842 which gave resources from China to Britain.
Meiji - Social and Political
Returned authority to the Japanese emperor, ending the militaristic government. Converted the old grain-tax to a fixed-money tax. The emperor appointed almost all higher positions (prime minister, armed forces, the cabinet). The Diet became their legislation (it still is a part of their government today).
Trying to centralize power, got rid of the old daimyos and replaced them so as to not encourage old domain loyalties. Samurai lost their positions essentially and feeling betrayed they tried to rebel but were beat down by the national army.
Meiji - Religion and Intellectual/Technological
Reforms such as religious freedom, but a high part of their education was from Confucianism and Shinto (which later changed into Buddhism). Many students were sent abroad to study foreign sciences and languages, in order for Japan to catch up on the other foreign countries. They were able to quickly catch up with the Westerner's advancements.
Meiji - Economic
National tax system established, using money and no longer rice or grains, giving their economy a fixed-money system.
Choson(Joseon) /Yi dynasty
Founded after the over throw of the Goryeo dynasty. Confucianism was quite popular (specifically the neo-Confucianism) while Buddhism was all but banned. Although making great advances in all aspects of their dynasty, they were under invasion from the surrounding Qing and Japan states, after which led to a 200-year peace until their isolation drove them to internal strife and eventually rebellions that declined the dynasty in the later 19th century
Qing - Social
Followed the Confucian social hierarchy: (from highest to lowest)
Privileged classes (scholar-bureaucrats and gentry, and of course the emperor and his family),
Working classes (actually split into three where Peasants are most highly regarded then workers or artisans and finally merchants),
Lower classes (military forces, slaves, indentured servants, entertainers, prostitutes, etc.)
Highly patriarchal, foot binding, widows were encouraged to commit suicide.
Qing - Political
Again, looked towards Confucianism for political policies, specifically neo-Confucianism.
Provided ample funding for projects that would aid in emphasizing their Chinese culture. Their court used the 'Sheng' administration system (by Yuan dynasty,used to enhance centralized rule). Later corrupt rulers would lead to the demise of this final dynasty
Qing - Religion
They stuck firmly with Confucianism as the Ming dynasty had done, yet early on in the 1750s Christianity was growing popular among the Chinese and was even being adapted into Confucian teachings.
Qing - Intellectual
Based off of Confucian teachings, the Chinese, during the Qing dynasty, valued their education above all. Scholars were revered, and school systems were established in many cities in order to help prospering students study for their civil service examinations. Many novels became popular and influential during this time.
During this dynasty science and technology were not of major importance, the leaders fearing that too much focus on this aspect would cause unrest in their stability. The Chinese eventually lost their technological grounds to the European because they found mass production using more workers was less costly and more efficient.
Meiji Imperialism began in the 1860s after the Meiji Restoration - it was eager to join Germany and the United States in establishing a place with the major powers of Europe.
Began an aggressive campaign to create an empire in the Pacific region and counter Russian gains in East Asia after the completion of the Trans-Serbian Railway
*important!* Japan tested their new "Western-style" army in the Sino-Japanese war with China in the 1890s and Japan claimed Korea after the war.
Japan defeated Russia in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905 to gain control of Manchuria.
Resistance to Imperialism
Emperor Mutsuhito (regal name was Meiji)
Chinese citizens rebelled against Japanese and British reign in the Taiping rebellion