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Civil Rights Timeline
Transcript of Civil Rights Timeline
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/civil-rights-act/ By Bennett Langton and David Walker Civil Rights Timeline
Supreme Court declared segregation on buses the crossed state borders illegal 1946 1948 President Truman issues order that ends racial segregation in the armed forces 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education 1955 Rosa Parks did not give up her seat 1956 Whites bomb homes of MLK and E.D. Nixon 1957 King joined with ministers and found SCLC 1957 Little Rock high school is desegregated 1961 Kennedy announces Interstate Commerce Commission 1961 Desegregate Route 40 Project 1963 Washington March 1963 Kennedy assassinated 1963 Kennedy sends troops desegregating University of Alabama 1964 Congress passes civil rights act 1965 Voting rights act of 1965 1966 Black Panther movement founded 1967 Race riots in Detroit + Newark 1967 Thurgood Marshall becomes first African-American Justice 1968 Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated 1969 Nixon's equal employment opportunity 1972 Equal rights amendment passes Works Cited In 1946, the Supreme Court stated that segregation on buses crossing state borders must be made illegal. Although this law allowed buses to be segregated within a single state, it was still progress for the Civil Rights Movement. However, white American’s managed to find a gap that allowed them to delay the movement. The end of the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955 marked the beginning of all buses being integrated. This was a major achievement towards racial equality. In 1948, President Truman issued an executive order ending racial segregation in the Armed Forces. In June, the President received a letter from Grant Reynolds, Chairman of the NAACP, and African-American Civil Right leader A. Philip Randolph that requested the President to issue an executive order to abolish segregation and discrimination from the armed forces. The committee was accountable for making sure the command was followed and “to recommend revisions in military regulations in order to implement the government's policy of desegregation of the armed services.” They final report was entitled Freedom to Serve, but also known as Fahy report. In the section dedicated to the Army, it was written: “All Army jobs now are open to Negroes.” For the first time in history, the United States Supreme Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional. This law overrides the Plessy v. Ferguson case of 1896 that actually allowed state-sponsored segregation. This law paved the way for the civil rights movement and equality for blacks and minorities. In January of 1956, angry whites bombed four African-American churches because of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. In addition, the homes of civil rights leaders Martin Luther King and E.D. Nixon are destroyed. Over the next two months, Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) attorneys filed a federal suit that challenged the constitutionality of separated seating on public buses. The Grand Jury indicted 90 MIA members for breaking an anti-boycott law. This decision caused an appeal that drew national attention. In 1957, sixty black ministers and civil rights leaders met in Atlanta, Georgia in an attempt to repeat the tactics of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The discussions that transpired led to the formation of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), which was headed by Martin Luther King. The group’s purpose was to eliminate segregation and give black southerners the rights of a citizen. The SCLC was hoping that they could accomplish these goals in a non-violent manner to achieve the best results. Later SCLC would address key issues such as war and poverty. In 1957, a white mob gathered in front of Little Rock Central High School. The Governor of Arkansas Orval Faubus deployed the Arkansas National Guard to prevent black students from attending school. In response to Faubus’ action, a team of NAACP lawyers won a federal district court ruling that prevented the governor from stopping the students’ entry. 1000 federal paratroopers escort the black students to preserve peace. Fearing that extreme violence would occur, the students were rushed home. Governor Faubus responds by closing the schools for the 1958-1959 school year. In 1961, President Kennedy enforces the Interstate Commerce Commission. This decision enacts stricter regulations and fines for buses and facilities that refuse to integrate African-Americans. Black and white activists continue to make Freedom Rides to towns in the south. Civil rights activists partake in protests, marches and meetings in Albany, Georgia. Shortly after, Martin Luther King joined the activists in what they called the Albany Movement. On December 1, 1955, after a long day of work Rosa Parks gets on a bus to go home. Mrs. Parks picks a seat in the middle where she can sit as long as no white person is standing. After making more stops on the buses routine route, all of the white’s seats are filled up and Rosa is asked to give up her seat and move to the back of the bus by the bus driver. After giving a stern reply of ‘NO’ the bus driver had Rosa Parks arrested for not giving up her seat to a white man. Although this may seem insignificant, it opened a new door of non-violent protest and resistance to African Americans who were fighting for their rights. Sparking the Desegregate Route 40 Project were two CORE activists named Wallace and Juanita Nelson. They led a sit-in at a highway restaurant because they would not serve them. They were arrested, refused to pay their fine and were on a hunger strike while serving a 14 day sentence. In response, the Baltimore CORE chapter took the lead in starting protests all the way up and down Route 40, demanding desegregation at restaurants. On August 28, more than 2,000 buses, 21 trains, 10 airliners, and countless cars gathered to Washington DC. The march was organized by a group of civil rights, labor, and religious organizations. It’s estimated that there was 200,000-300,000 people participating in the march and that 75-80% of the participants were black. During the march, Martin Luther King Jr. gave his legendary ‘I have a dream’ speech in front of the Lincoln memorial on the emancipation proclamation’s 100th anniversary that ignited hundreds of thousands of souls and propelled the civil rights movement further. In 1963, President Kennedy was assassinated while sitting in the back of a convertible. The grief and utter disbelief of the situation swept across the United States of America. Former Vice President Lyndon Baines Johnson quickly took over as President. The reverberations of Kennedy's assassination provided an atmosphere for Johnson to complete the work already put in place by JFK. LBJ had almost a year until the election of 1964 to showcase to Americans that he should be President. In the next eleven months, he used the country’s anger to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Economic Opportunity Act of 1964. This act outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been inflicted upon the African Americans of the U.S. The Act also privileged the federal government with the power of overseeing the Elections Administration so that states could not make any change to voting without the approval of the Department of Justice first. This act is a landmark in civil-rights legislation because was one of the first times the government actually created a new law to recognize blacks as equal. On April 4, 1968, King was struck by a .30 caliber sniper bullet when standing on his balcony at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis without warning. The bullet hit him in the head, passed through his neck and stopped at his shoulder, and he died an hour later. In retaliation many blacks took to the streets all across the United States in a huge wave of riots. To this day we do not know for sure who assassinated him, the FBI investigated the crime but some even believe it was them that did it. James Earl Ray was arrested, but even some of Martin Luther King Jr.’s own family believed he was innocent. The Black Panthers formed in California in the year 1966. They played a crucial, but short-lived part in the civil rights movement. The Black Panthers thought that Martin Luther King's non-violent campaign had failed. The Black Panther Party had four desires: equality in education, housing, employment and civil rights.The language and public stance of the Black Panthers was viewed as cruel. The founders of the Black Panther Party were Huey Percy Newton and Bobby Seale. Both of them preached for a"revolutionary war" and used violence to get what they wanted. The Black Panther Party had four desires: equality in education, housing, employment and civil rights. The Equal rights amendment proposed sexual equality between men and women. First proposed in 1971, it was struck down and the amendment had to wait. Led by feminists Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem they proposed it again and it won the 2/3 vote from the U.S. House of Representatives to be approved in 1972. Sexual equality when voting is not protected by the U.S. Constitution, but under the Equal Rights Amendment women are granted equal rights and this can’t be changed by the U.S. or any state on account of sex. The riots of Newark were sparked when John Smith a cab driver from New Jersey was arrested for allegedly driving around a double-parked police car. He was subsequently stopped, interrogated, arrested and sent to police headquarters. Crowds began to form outside the precinct and buildings were destroyed because they felt this man should be sent to the hospital due to his injuries. The riots of Detroit began after patrons were forced to leave a bar. One group was “confused and upset because they were kicked out of the only place they had to go” and decided to break windows and lift the f a clothing store. After Justice Tom Clark retired, President Johnson appointed Thurgood Marshall to the Supreme Court. In addition, he won an important case against segregation in 1954. Thurgood wanted to establish himself as a fine choice for Supreme Court Justice and confirmed that with a 69-11 vote by the Senate. Over the next 24 years, Justice Marshall made it known that he was for abortion rights and against the death penalty. He continued his goal of ensuring treatment that was equal for all races. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned discrimination in public places and in employment on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. Approving this act discontinued the use of the "Jim Crow" laws. Civil Rights Act was eventually lengthened by Congress to show the significance of these fundamental civil rights. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was finally passed on February 10th of 1964. Soon it became the basis for future anti-discrimination legislation. George Wallace was elected as the governor of Alabama in 1962 under the slogan, “Segregation now! Segregation tomorrow! Segregation forever!” When African Americans attempted to desegregate the University of Alabama in Jun 1963, Alabama’s new governor and state troopers blocked the door of the enrollment office so they couldn’t get in. However, this was an act directly against the Brown v. Board ruling and the executive branch utilized aggressive tactics to enforce the ruling. On Jun 10, 1963, Kennedy sent National Guard troops to the University of Alabama to enforce its desegregation. This sent a message that black rights WILL be enforced. In 1969, President Nixon's "Philadelphia Order" presented "goals and timetables" for reaching equal employment. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces laws that prohibit discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. The race, color, sex, creed, and age of an individual are now protected classes. Its role today includes enforcing a range of federal statutes prohibiting employment discrimination. By the late 1970s, every branch of the federal government had taken at least some action to fulfill the promise of equal protection under the law.