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Midterm Review topics

Breakdown of the vocabulary and grammar topics of chapters 8, 9, 10, and 11 of the Buen Viaje Vol. 1 text book.
by

Zach Stewart

on 9 June 2014

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Transcript of Midterm Review topics

Midterm Review
¡Buena suerte!
Don't forget to look over the vocab.
and...
-Vocabulario
en la consulta del médico
en la farmacia
-Gramática
ser y estar
me, te, nos
-Vocabulario
el cine
el teatro y el museo
-Gramática
verbos -ER, -IR en el pretérito
ver y dar en el pretérito
le y les
Capítulo 8

-Vocabulario
la playa
la estación de esquí
-La gramática
verbos -AR en el pretérito
-car, -gar, -zar verbs
ir y ser en el pretérito
lo, la, los, las
Capítulo 10
estar
ser
Feeling

Estoy
triste hoy.
Present Progressive

Las chicas
están
hablando mucho.
Location

¿Dónde
está
mi bolígrafo?
Origin

Somos
de El Salvador.
ownership

Es
el cuaderno de Javi.
description

Mis amigos
son
guapos.
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
Condition

Estamos
enfermos.
me te nos
When someone is doing an action to someone else (me, you, or us) you can use "me", "te", or "nos" before the verb.
El médico
me
examina. (The doctor examines
me
.)
El farmacéutico
te
vende los medicamentos. (The pharmacist sells
you
the medicine.)
El profesor
nos
da el examen. (The teacher gives
us
the test.)
nadar- to swim
nad
é
nad
aste
nad
ó
nad
amos
nad
asteis
nad
aron
Add these endings (
in red
) to the stem of regular -AR verbs to make them happen in the past tense.
-gar
-car, -gar, -zar
Verbs ending with these endings need special consideration in the "yo" form in the past tense to maintain the correct sound for the verb.
-car
Yo to
qué
la guitarra y practi
qué
mi canción favorita.
tocar, practicar
jugar, llegar
Yo lle
gué
a la playa a las diez.
Yo no ju
gué
en la arena.
-zar
lanzar, empezar
Yo empe

a tomar el sol a las once.
Yo le lan

la pelota a Juan.
fui
fuiste
fue
fuimos
fuisteis
fueron
"
Ser
" (to be) and "
ir
" (to go) both conjugate the same way in the preterit tense!
While that makes it easy to conjugate, it can be difficult to translate. Use context clues!
So if you see "
Yo fui
" you need to decide if it means "I went" (ir) or "I was" (ser)
Is it masculine or feminine?
Singular or plural?
Now that you've determined that "
las
" will replace "
mis gafas de sol
" you put it
before
the verb.
Determine the word you are replacing.
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
lo, la, los, las
We use these words to mean "it" or "them", when referencing something already mentioned, in particular, a direct object.
Compré un traje de baño nuevo.
Lo
compré ayer.

I bought a new bathing suit. I bought
it
yesterday.
But how do I create a sentence with "lo, la, los, las" in it correctly?
A la playa llevo mis
gafas de sol
.
gaf
as
-> feminine
¿la o las?
gaf
as
-> plural
las
A la playa llevo
mis gafas de sol
.
(At the beach I wear my sunglasses.)
A la playa
las
llevo.
(At the beach I wear them.)
¿lo, la, los, o las?
sal
í
sal
iste
sal

sal
imos
sal
isteis
sal
ieron
Capítulo 9
-er, -ir verbs
regular -er and -ir verbs use the following endings to show that they are in the past tense. -er and -ir verbs use the exact same endings in the past tense.
salir- to leave, go out
ser y ir
d
i
d
iste
d
io
d
imos
d
isteis
d
ieron
"ver" (to see) and "dar" (to give) have similar endings in the past tense, but no accents!
v
i
v
iste
v
io
v
imos
v
isteis
v
ieron
dar- to give
ver- to see
We use the verb "ser" to mean "to be" in terms of description, origin, and ownership, amongst some other things. In general, you can think of "ser" as used for things that have more 'permanence'.
In general, "estar" is used to mean "to be" in terms of things that are more temporary, like feelings. Remember, how you feel and where you are, always use the verb estar!
le y les
"Le" and "les" are indirect object pronouns, and they need to be used whenever there is an indirect object in a sentence. But.... what's an indirect object?
Juana is the subject of the sentence, she is the person doing the action.
The ball would be the direct object in the sentence, it is "what" is being acted on by the verb (throw).
Let's look at the following sentence as an example.

Juana throws the ball to Miguel.
Miguel would be the indirect object, he receives the direct object. He is "to whom" the ball is thrown.
In Spanish, because the sentence has an
indirect object
, we need to use an
indirect object pronoun
, either "le" or "les". What do you think it would be if
Miguel
is the
indirect object
?
"
le
" because
Miguel
is just one person.
The entire sentence would then be written:

Juana
le
lanza la pelota
a Miguel
.
(Juana throws the ball
to Miguel
.)
You could also say:

Juana
le
lanza la pelota.

...but in this case it just means: Juana throws the ball to him.
This review is focused on the grammatical elements of chapters 8, 9, 10, 11. If you would like review of the vocabulary, use your vocabulary lists, which are in the "Midterm Review" folder on Fusion.
Capítulo 11
Vocabulario
el aeropuerto
Gramática
-go verbs!
el presente progresivo
saber y conocer
-Go Verbs!
"-go" verbs are simply verbs that end in "-go" in the "yo" form of the present tense.

The rest of the forms do not have a 'g' in them at all.
hacer
salir
poner
traer
venir
tener
to do/ to make
to take a trip
to pack your suitcases
Hago
mi tarea todas las noches.
Mi familia y yo
hacemos
un viaje.
Ella
hace
las maletas para el viaje.
*Notice that only the "yo" form has a 'g' in it!
to leave/ go out
Yo
salgo
para el aeropuerto.
¿A qué hora
sales
tú?
Nosotros
salimos
a tiempo.
to put
Yo
pongo
las maletas en el maletero del taxi.
El agente
pone
un talón en la maleta.
Ellos
ponen
las maletas en la báscula.
to bring
Yo
traigo
el equipaje al aeropuerto.
¿Qué
traes
tú?
Ellos
traen
todo lo que tienen.
*Notice the 'yo' form has an "i" in it, make sure to include that!
to come
Yo siempre
vengo
al aeropuerto a tiempo.
¿A qué hora
viene
él?
Venimos
mañana.
to have
Tengo
mi equipaje de mano.
Ellos
tienen
los boletos en los bolsillos.
Ella no
tiene
el pasaporte.
El presente progresivo
In Spanish, there is a direct equivalent to the English '-ing' ending to verbs. You just have to make sure you say
who is
doing the action (with the verb estar).

1st step
Add the rest...
so...
Next...
estar
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
Let's try the sentence:
I am boarding the plane.
First we need to choose which form of 'estar' to use.
I am
boarding the plane.
Estoy
estoy estamos
estás estáis
está están
if the verb is an -AR verb use
-ando

if the verb is an -ER or -IR verb use
-iendo

*for the verbs "leer", "traer", and "creer" use
-yendo
the "-ing" part
abord
ar
abord
ando

Estoy
abord
ando
el avión.
saber y conocer
Both of these verbs mean 'to know' in English, but in Spanish they are used for different reasons.
conocer
saber
broad concept or idea
places
people
information
how to...
facts
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
we use 'saber' to talk about knowing facts, information, or how to do something. 'Saber' conjugates regularly except for in the 'yo' form (yo

)
El
sabe
que el vuelo sale a las ocho y cuarto.
Sabemos
el número del vuelo.
Yo

facturar las maletas
we use 'conocer' to talk about knowing people, places, or broad concepts or ideas. 'Conocer' conjugates regularly except for in the 'yo' form (yo
conozco
)
When talking about knowing people, make sure you use "a" after the verb and before the name of the person.
Yo
conozco
a Ana.
Ellos no
conocen
bien la ciudad.
Use this when talking about something broad, like history, instead of a particular fact about history.
¿
Conoces
tú la literatura española?
When using 'saber' to discuss knowing how to do something, you just need to use a form of the verb 'saber' followed by the verb (that you know how to do) in the infinitive. That's it!
(comment on this Prezi to get extra credit on the midterm)
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