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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Transcript of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
The baby's eyebrows and eyelashes are beginning to grow. Their eyes can move now, although the eyelids are still shut, and the mouth can open and close.
The lines on the skin of the fingers are now formed, so the baby already has his or her own individual fingerprints. Fingernails and toenails are growing and the baby has a firm hand grip.
The baby moves around quite a bit, and may respond to loud noises from the outside world, such as music. A mother may not feel these movements yet, especially if this is a first pregnancy.
The cerebellum is one of the last structures of the brain to develop with the majority of structures in the brain having begun development earlier.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Development
Birth and Beyond
What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?
A congenital syndrome caused by excessive consumption of alcohol by the mother during pregnancy, characterized by retardation of mental development and of physical growth, particularly of the skull and face of the infant.
In the first two weeks following fertilization, excessive alcohol consumption does not generally have a negative effect on the zygote and emerging *blastocyst (pre-embryo). Maternal consumption of alcohol during this time can prevent proper implantation of the zygote in the uterus, resulting in an increased rate of *resorption or early termination of the pregnancy, generally before a woman realizes she is pregnant.
*blastocyst-the blastula of the mammalian embryo, consisting of an inner cell mass, a cavity, and an outer layer, the trophoblast.
*resorption-the destruction, disappearance, or dissolution of a tissue or part by biochemical activity
It is in the third week that specific alcohol-induced birth defects begin to affect the developing embryo. Between this point and the sixth week after fertilization, the cranial neural crest cell population is vulnerable to alcohol-induced damages. The cranial neural crest cells compose the frontonasal process of the developing embryo, which interacts with the development of facial features. Damage to these cells can result in the minor facial abnormalities characteristic of FAS.
Heart cells also begin to form shortly after the third week and by the fourth week of development, the embryonic heart is already beating. During this rapid period of cardiac development, alcohol can slow the growth of these cells. Defects that result from those impediments can include atrial and ventricular abnormalities, issues with valve formation, and a potential increase in the risk of heart disease later in adulthood.
During the third week of gestation, ocular development begins and tissues of the eye are the first component of the central nervous system compromised by the prenatal introduction of alcohol. During this time and continuing forward, the retina becomes vulnerable to the effects of alcohol. At about four weeks after fertilization, the *neuroectoderm begins to interact with the surface ectoderm to create tissues that later give rise to the lens and cornea of the eye.
Size: smaller than a grain of rice
size:of an apple seed
The eighth week after fertilization is the end of the embryonic stage and the beginning of the fetal stage of pregnancy. Prenatal alcohol exposure still has the potential to negatively impact normal development, but as the majority of organ systems have been determined by this point in time, organ-specific birth defects are not normally expected. The developing central nervous system remains vulnerable to the prenatal exposure of alcohol, particularly in the formation of the cerebellum, and the fetus remains vulnerable in terms of prenatal growth restrictions.
In the fifth week, the eyes begin to form uvea (iris and other associated muscles), sclera (protective sheath surrounding the eye) and eyelids. The most common defects, microphthalmia and optic nerve hypoplasia arise when prenatal alcohol exposure happens in this developmental cycle.
Specific damage to the brain can continue in the sixth week, after the brain has begun to divide into vesicles. At that point, the corpus callosum, a midline structure responsible for the communication between the left and right hemispheres of the brain, becomes vulnerable to alcohol.
Size:week 7-blueberry week 8- jellybean
I just completed a long journey and now I'm floating around in this place. I have so much space around me.
I have attached to something. I wonder how long I will be in here.
I feel a really fast thumping. Something little is forming in me.
Size: 9 weeks-grape 10 weeks-olive
low birth weight
different facial features
Problems with perceiving consequences, and inability to learn from experience.
Poor problem-solving skills
Poor social skills and lack of control of impulsive behaviour
Speech and language delay
Difficulty with concepts with math, money and time
Sucking and feeding problems
Occasionally, features of delirium
Tremor due to alcohol withdrawal
I have things sprouting from all over my body. What are they for?
I am able to move now.More things are forming inside me.
Size: 11 weeks-fig 12 weeks-key lime
I can now really move my body parts. I can grasp things now.
Size: small lemon
The fetus is not as sensitive to the effects of alcohol as the embryo, and in the third trimester the fetus begins to self-regulate. If alcohol impacts cellular proliferation in the first and second trimester, or consistently throughout the entire pregnancy, then the growth deficiencies will be symmetric and observed across all parts of the developing fetus. Asymmetric growth restrictions, which result in a normal-sized head but smaller than normal abdominal cavity, may result in the third semester. The head is a normal size because in the third trimester the fetus can redistribute cardiac resources to the command centers of the body, like the brain and heart, at the expense of other less vital processes like digestion.
By: Allison Hampton
I'm running out of room! I am upside down and ready to come out!
Size: Small watermelon usually weighing about 7 pounds
There is less room in here now. I can suck my thumb.
I am finally out! It is really bright. There are so many noises. Someone is holding me wrapped up in something.
I can hear you now Mommy. I like when you reads books to me.
Hey womb service, I'm craving ice cream and pickles. I am hiccuping and kicking around. Can you feel me?
The hands and feet are developing, ridges identify where the fingers and toes will be, although they haven't separated out yet. The major internal organs (such as the heart, brain, lungs, and kidneys) continue developing.The ears are starting to develop on the sides of the baby's head, and inside the head its ear canals are forming.
All its organs, muscles, limbs and bones are in place, and the sex organs are well developed. From now on, the fetus has to grow and mature.
The baby's ovaries or testes are fully developed inside their body.
Around now, the baby begins to swallow little bits of *amniotic fluid, which pass into the stomach. The kidneys start to work and the swallowed fluid passes back into the amniotic fluid as urine.
* Neuroectoderm-region of embryonic ectoderm that develops into the brain and spinal cord as well as into the nervous tissue of the peripheral nervous system
*ectoderm-the outer germ layer in the embryo of a metazoan.
*amniotic fluid-the watery fluid in the amnion, in which the embryo is suspended.