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INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND POLITICS

Introduction
by

A K

on 3 July 2013

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Transcript of INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND POLITICS

Because power takes many forms, political science often overlaps with economics, psychology, sociology, and the other social sciences.
Meaning of Political Science
What is
Political Science?

Some particular areas that political scientists study include:
public policy, national politics, political theory, comparative politics, and
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
“Politics is a fascinating game, because politics is government. It is the art of government.”
Harry Truman
“The function of political science is to discover the principles that should be adhered to in public affairs that eventually would serve as a model that can be applied to matters of urgent concern to public officials and to private citizens.”
Function and importance of Political Science
Education for citizenship:
The primary objective of the political science curriculum is to equip students to discharge the obligations of democratic citizenship
Goal in the study of political science
POLITICAL SCIENCE TERMINOLOGY
STATE
A state is a community of persons more or less numerous, permanently occupying a definite portion of territory, having a government of their own to which the great body of inhabitants render obedience, and enjoying freedom from external control.
Meaning of 'State'
answers the question, “who governs whom?”
no specific number requirement
“…the state shall neither be too small nor yet one that seems great but has no unity.” (Plato)
“people”
"Territory"
Demarcated area that rightly belongs to the population
Elements of a state
"Government"
Refers to the agency to which the will of the state is formulated, expressed, and carried out.
"SOVEREIGNTY"
May be defined as the supreme power of the state to command and enforce obedience to its will from the people within its jurisdiction and corollary to have freedom from foreign control.
Internal –
power of the state to rule within its territory

External –
the freedom of the state to carry out its activities without subjection to or control by other states.
NATION
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A STATE AND A NATION?



“The state is a political concept while
a nation is an ethnic concept.”
State
distinguished from nation


“ A state is not subject to external control while a nation may or may not be independent of external control.”

“ A single state may consist of one or more nations or people and conversely, a single nation may be made up of several states.”
GOVERNMENT

“A state cannot exist
without a government, but it is possible to have a government without a state.”
"State"
distinguished from "government"
DEMOCRACY
term originating in ancient Greece to designate a government where the people share in directing the activities of the state, as distinct from governments controlled by a single class, select group, or autocrat. The definition of democracy has been expanded, however, to describe a philosophy that insists on the right and the capacity of a people, acting either directly or through representatives, to control their institutions for their own purposes. Such a philosophy places a high value on the equality of individuals and would free people as far as possible from restraints not self-imposed. It insists that necessary restraints be imposed only by the consent of the majority and that they conform to the principle of equality.
REALISM
LIBERALISM

Balance of power, The survival of the state, anarchy, sovereignty, military strength, security dilemma, self-help system, authority, hegemony, inherent pessimism…

1.There is an inherent pessimism for realists to explain the worldly events.

2.Prisoner’s dilemma: There is never a situation in international politics in which states value in absolute gains.

3.Power is the means by which a state’s security is guaranteed.

4. States are unitary actors.

5. States are rational actors.

6. States are the primary units of international politics.

7.International system is anarchic.
terms most associated with Liberalism

Democracy, institutions, democratic peace, corporation, international order and harmony, economy, inherent optimism, anarchy, non-state actors, integration…

1. The most basic assumptions of liberalism reflect an inherent optimism in the school of thought.

2. Liberals, as well as realists, begin with a Prisoner’s Dilemma. Liberals, however, assume that the prisoner’s dilemma is non-constant because it is a product of conditions and can beovercome.

3. Liberals also begin with the assumptions that states are unitary and rational actors. However, liberals do not share the realist assumptions that power is the means by which a state’s security is guaranteed, that states are the primary units of international politics. Liberals believe

security can be guaranteed by other means.

4.Liberals, like realists, assume that the international system is anarchic, but do not assume that a super-national authority is the only means by which to enforce rules, norms, or contracts.

5.Institutions can help with communication and interaction to overcome prisoner’s dilemma.
International
Relations

International Relations theory entails the development of conceptual frameworks and theories to facilitate the understanding and explanation of events and phenomena in world politics, as well as the analysis and informing of associated policies and practices.
'IR'
is different from
'ir'
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND POLITICS:
KEY CONCEPTS

"Political Science"
What does Citizenship Education cover?

knowledge and understanding: e.g. about topics such as laws and rules, the democratic process, the media, human rights, diversity, money and the economy, sustainable development and world as a global community; and about concepts, such as democracy, justice, equality, freedom, authority and the rule of law;

skills and aptitudes: e.g. critical thinking, analysing information, expressing opinions, taking part in discussions and debates, negotiating, conflict resolution and participating in community action;

values and dispositions: e.g. respect for justice, democracy and the rule of law, openness, tolerance, courage to defend a point of view, and a willingness to listen to, work with and stand up for others.
CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION
Democracies depend upon citizens who, among other things, are:
aware of their rights and responsibilities as citizens
informed about the social and political world
concerned about the welfare of others
articulate in their opinions and arguments
capable of having an influence on the world
active in their communities
responsible in how they act as citizens.
Citizenship education aims to equip people with these skills and capabilities.
What skills and characteristics
should citizens have?

Different characteristics are required by
citizens in different types of political
system. The characteristics required of
people living as free and equal citizens
in a democratic society differ
significantly from those of people
living under, say, a
totalitarian regime.
GOVERNMENT
government is a system of social control under which the right to make laws, and the right to enforce them, is vested in a particular group in society.
TYPES OF
GOVERNMENT
There are many classifications of government.

According to the classical formula, governments are distinguished by whether power is held by one man, a few, or a majority.

Today, it is common to distinguish between types of government on the basis of institutional organization and the degree of control exercised over the society.


Organizationally, governments may be classified into parliamentary or presidential systems, depending on the relationship between executive and legislature.


Government may also be classified according to the distribution of power at different levels. It may be unitary—i.e., with the central government controlling local affairs—or it may be federated or confederated, according to the degree of autonomy of local government.


The basic law determining the form of government is called the constitution and may be written, as in the United States, or largely unwritten, as in Great Britain.


Modern governments perform many functions besides the traditional ones of providing internal and external security, order, and justice; most are involved in providing welfare services, regulating the economy, and establishing educational systems.


The extreme case of governmental regulation of every aspect of people's lives is totalitarianism.
The discipline of IR was officially established after World War 1 with a view to avoiding future mass conflicts and ensuring peaceful change. This remains a worthy goal, but today the scope and complexities of world politics demand an understanding of a much wider range of issues. Moreover, new conceptual frameworks and theories are required to improve our understanding and assist in the development of better policies and practices.
Why study IR theory?
What is IR theory?
the other emphasizes that nations will always use their power to achieve goals and sees the key to peace in a balance of power among competing states.
Two schools
of thought
quickly developed:
One looks to strengthened international law and international organizations to preserve peace;
terms most associated with Realism
Basic assumptions of liberalism
Basic features of Realism
DEFINITION
LIBERAL DEMOCRACY
Liberal democracy (also known as constitutional democracy) = a common form of representative democracy.

According to the principles of liberal democracy, elections should be free and fair, and the political process should be competitive. Political pluralism is usually defined as the presence of multiple and distinct political parties.
the states of the European Union, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, Japan, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, South Korea, Taiwan, the United States, India, Canada, Israel, Mexico, South Africa, Australia,
and New Zealand.
LIBERAL DEMOCRACIES
TYPES OF LIBERAL DEMOCRACIES
PROPORTIONAL
VS
PLURALITY REPRESENTATION
Plurality voting system award seats according to regional majorities. The political party or individual candidate who receives the most votes, wins the seat which represents that locality.
proportional representation awards seats according to the proportion of individual votes that a party receives nation-wide or in a particular region.
PRESIDENTIAL
VS
PARLIAMENTARY
A presidential system is a system of government of a republic in which the executive branch is elected separately from the legislative.
A parliamentary system is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence.
'science' + humans = problematic
Because political science is essentially a study of human behavior, in all aspects of politics, observations in controlled environments are often challenging to reproduce or duplicate, though experimental methods are increasingly common
Because of this, political scientists have historically observed political elites, institutions, and individual or group behavior in order to identify patterns, draw generalizations, and build theories of politics. Like all social sciences, political science faces the difficulty of observing human actors that can only be partially observed and who have the capacity for making conscious choices unlike other subjects such as non-human organisms in biology or inanimate objects as in
physics.
"We are limited by the impossibility of experiment.
Politics is an observational, not an experimental science."
rule by the people
Political Science is a social science regarding power, the practice and theory of politics, the analysis of political systems, and the study of political behavior.
history of political science
The word
'politics'
comes from the Greek word
polis
,
which means city-state.
ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL
POLITICAL SCIENCE
- CLOSELY LINKED TO PHILOSOPHY AND THEOLOGY
- MOSTLY ADVICE FOR RULERS ON HOW TO GOVERN JUSTLY OR HOW TO MAINTAIN POWER
POLITICAL SCIENCE DEVELOPMENT:
RENAISSANCE AND ENLIGHTENMENT

- INCREASING DIVISION OF SCIENCE AND RELIGION

- POLITICAL PHILOSOPHERS OF THIS ERA ATTEMPTED TO ESTABLISH A SYSTEMATIC, SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING OF POLITICS.
POLITICAL SCIENCE:
19TH-20TH CENTURY
- POLITICAL SCIENCE
INSTITUTED AS A DISCIPLINE IN UNIVERSITIES
- SHIFT TOWARDS RELYING ON STATISTICAL DATA AND EMPIRICAL OBSERVATIONS TO UNDERSTAND POLITICS (QUANTITATIVE AND
QUALITATIVE SCIENCE)
MODERN POLITICAL SCIENCE
DIVIDED INTO THREE DISTINCT DISCIPLINES:
1- COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT
2 - POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
3- INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
How could politics be a science, if laws and forms of government had not a uniform influence upon society? Where would be the foundation of morals, if particular characters had no certain or determinate power to produce particular sentiments, and if these sentiments had no constant operation on actions?
(David Hume, Enquiries Concerning Human Understanding, 1737)
The problems posed by ethical and political philosophy are not of a kind that can be solved once and for all and handed on to posterity as so much accomplished; and that the problems are still the same problems at the bottom, however much appearances and circumstances may have altered in twenty three centuries. How can humans live together? The world has grown smaller and more humans are forced to live together. The problem is larger, more acute and more complicated than it was when ancient philosophers first looked at it. How in particular can a top-dog and an under-dog be made to live together?’
(Aristotle, introduction to 'Politics')
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