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Psychological Schools of Thought Timeline
Transcript of Psychological Schools of Thought Timeline
Psychological Schools of Thought Timeline
Structuralism is generally thought of as the first school of thought in psychology.
This outlook focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components.
Major thinkers associated with structuralism include Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener.
The focus of structuralism was on reducing mental processes down into their most basic elements.
The structuralists used techniques such as introspection to analyze the inner processes of the human mind.
Structuralism was the dominant school of psychology in Germany and the U.S. between 1890-1920.
This was the rival school of Structuralism.
Functionalism stressed the importance of consciousness and behavior.
Functionalism addresses society as a whole in terms of the function of its constituent elements; namely norms, customs, traditions and institutions.
William James is the main person credited as the founder of functionalism the 1890s.
Darwin's theory of evolution influenced this school's methodology.
Functionalism was utilitarian and concerned with commonsense issues.
Functionalism was so successful that newer fields of psychology adopted most of its assumptions and methods, including Behaviorism.
Gestalt psychology is a school of psychology based upon the idea that we experience things as unified wholes.
According to the gestalt thinkers, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
This approach to psychology began in Germany and Austria during the 1920s in response to the molecular approach of structuralism.
The person instrumental to the development of Gestalt psychology was Max Wertheimer.
He made a keen observation we now refer to as "phi phenomenon," which is basically the illusion that light is moving from one place to another although it's not actually occurring.
Was founded by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
It was thought of as a kind of technique in psychotherapy.
It is a general psychology of human behavior.
There are six assumptions that show the main ideas of psychoanalytic theory. One is that unconscious mental processes exist. The second is all human behavior is motivated and purposeful. Third, past experiences influence current changes and reactions. Forth, personality functioning is very complex and can be understood through the Id, Ego, and Superego. Fifth, thinking processes involve energy, strength and force. Finally human behavior is influenced by interaction with the environment.
Was the primary paradigm in psychology between 1920s to 1950
Behaviorism was a major change from previous theoretical perspectives, rejecting the emphasis on both the conscious and unconscious mind.
Instead, behaviorism strove to make psychology a more scientific discipline by focusing purely on observable behavior.
Behaviorism suggests that all behavior can be explained by environmental causes rather than by internal forces.
Behaviorism is focused on observable behavior. Theories of learning including classical conditioning and operant conditioning were the focus of a great deal of research.
It was based upon the work of thinkers such as: John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B. F. Skinner.
Modern humanistic psychology emerged in about the mid-1950s but has been traced back to the middle ages.
Humanistic psychology developed as a response to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. But humanistic psychology focused on individual free will, personal growth and the concept of self-actualization.
While early schools of thought were largely centered on abnormal human behavior, humanistic psychology differed considerably in its emphasis on helping people achieve and fulfill their potential.
Major humanist thinkers were Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.
Cognitive psychology began to emerge during the 1950s, partly as a response to behaviorism.
One of the most influential theories from this school of thought was the stages of cognitive development theory proposed by Jean Piaget.
Studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn.
It is related to other disciplines including neuroscience, philosophy and linguistics.
It explicitly acknowledges the existence of internal mental states (such as belief, desire and motivation).
A way of looking at psychological topics by studying the physical basis for animal and human behavior.
Involves such things as studying the immune system, nervous system and genetics.
This field of psychology is often referred to as biopsychology or physiological psychology.
Today, scientists use tools such as PET and MRI scans to look at how drugs, disease and brain damage impact behavior and cognitive functioning.
Was established in the late 1800s
Cross-cultural is a school of thought that studies the effects of culture on behavior and mental processes.
The main focus is on the similarities and differences in psychological functioning across cultures and ethnic groups.
Cross-cultural psychology was established in the 1970s and it has continued to grow and develop since then.
We think this picture symbolizes structuralism because it breaks down and divides the man's thought processes.
We think the maze represents structuralism in a way that trying to analyze or break down someone's brain processes can be very difficult to figure out.
We think this picture symbolizes functionalism because functionalism addresses society as a whole and we are constantly changing and evolving.
Functionalism is also said to study common sense which is expressed in this picture of a man sawing at a branch that he is sitting on. Common sense would say it is a bad idea.
Evolutionary is a school of thought that aims to understand the functions of the human mind by looking at and understanding what adaptive problems it may have solved earlier in its ancestral past.
This school of thought was established somewhere around the late 1800s.
Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection impacted evolutionary psychology.
Evolutionary uses ideas such as adaption, reproduction and the concept of survival of the fittest as the basis for explaining specific human behaviors.
This picture is a good example of psychoanalysis because it shows your personality in what you decide to show on the surface and all you have underneath.
We feel that this is a good indication of psychoanalysis because it seems that the small man is telling a bigger version of himself something almost like a conscience or ego.
This image illustrates the evolution of men, which relates to evolutionary psychology because this school of thought deals with how our adaption and reproduction explains human behaviors.
This picture is an actual picture used in gestalt therapy to see what images the patient will see, two people or a goblet.
We think it is one of the most used pictures and would be a good representation.
The Chick-fil-A logo is a good representation of Gestalt because the "C" is also a chicken.
This image is a very accurate representation of evolutionary psychology. The young man mentions that he cheated because he is "programmed to spread his seed". He is referring to reproduction, which is one of the concepts of evolutionary psychology.
We think a picture of a puppy being trained is a good example of behaviorism because a treat will influence the way a dog would act in a certain situation.
I think this is a good example of behaviorism because after a period of conditioning almost all animals and even humans eventually know what to do to get what they want.
Humanism explains normal human behavior and we thought this would be a good example because humans have a tendency of falling in love or finding a mate.
We thought that this picture represented self-actualization in a way in which we can find happiness and achieve great things in life.
Since biological psychology studies the nervous system we thought this picture could really relate to it.
As biological psychology also studies animal and human behavior we thought that this picture could symbolize the difference in animal and human thinking.
According to the cognitive school of thought, human behavior is primarily controlled by an individuals mental processes. This picture shows the different areas in our brain that controls our behavior.
This image show someone trying to solve a problem by using their mind. Cognitive psychologists believe that the mind is an active and aware problem solving system.
All of the people seem to be from different countries and are behaving how they normally would, but while they find their behavior normal others find it odd. Cross-cultural psychology focuses on how different social and cultural environments can influence behavior.
Just like the picture below illustrates, when people act differently than them, they are outcasts. The differences in cultures can affect the way we see or treat people of different ethnicity's.