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Domain, diglossia, and polyglossia.
Transcript of Domain, diglossia, and polyglossia.
Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field. Major branches of applied linguistics includebilingualism and multilingualism. - Diglossia: communities rather in
which two languages or language varieties are used with
one being a high variety for formal situations and prestige, and a low
variety for informal
situations (everyday conversation). Polyglossia: basically polyglossia situations involve two contrasting
varieties (high and low) but in general it refers to communities that regularly use more than two languages. Sociolinguistics: a term that refers to the study
of the relationship between language and society,
and how language is used in multilingual speech communities. Domains: domains of language use, a term popularised by an American sociolinguist, Joshua Fishman. A domain of language involves typical interactions between typical participants in typical settings about a typical topic. Examples of these domains are family, friendship, religion, education and employment. Example: the standard classical Arabic language is the high variety in Arab countries, and it is used for writing and for formal functions, but vernacular (colloquial) Arabic is the low variety used for informal speech situations. - Code-switching: it is to move from one code (language, dialect, or style) to another during speech for a number of reasons such, to signal solidarity, to reflect one's ethnic identity, to show off, to hide some information from a third party, to achieve better explanation of a certain concept, to converge or reduce social distance with the hearer, to diverge or increase social distance or to impress and persuade the audience (metaphorical code-switching)
- Lexical borrowing: it results from the lack of vocabulary and it involves borrowing single words – mainly nouns. When speaking a second language, people will often use a term from their first language because they don't know the appropriate word in their second language. They also my borrow words from another language to express a concept or describe an object for which there is no obvious word available in the language they are using.