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BlockingAnomaliesPresentation

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by

Raquel Somavilla Cabrillo

on 1 November 2013

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Transcript of BlockingAnomaliesPresentation

We must complete the puzzle
Heat transfer to
the deep ocean

Sea ice retreat
December 2010
Blocking anticyclones that persist for multiple days to weeks and block the jet stream
January 2005
Salinity anomaly propagation at ENACW level
from mid-latitudes towards the Nordic Seas

Ocean basin effects of blocking anomalies and sea-ice retreat
Barnes et al., 2013
Francis & Vavrus, 2012
Cohen et al., 2012
Häkkinen, 2011
Wollings et al., 2011
A downwards heat and salt injection mechanism linking mid-latitudes and polar regions in the North Atlantic
R. Somavilla(1), U. Schauer(1), C. González-Pola(2), G. Budeus(1)
Downward heat & salt injection mechanism
(1)
(2)
Winter 2008 in the Greenland Sea
Blocking
Anomalies

Somavilla et al., 2009
The Keeling Curve: Atmospheric CO2 concentrations as measured at Mauna Loa Observatory
Meier et al., 2012; Francis & Vavrus, 2012
Many thanks
for your attention

Questions
upper levels cooling
Mixing until
2000 m.



Direct heat and salt injection at this depth

1994
2010
2000
2005
Sea-ice extension and Arctic Amplification anomalies
Blocking anomalies in the North Atlantic
Atlantic Water (Tmax and Smax, 50-150 m) in the Nordic Seas
Ocean Weather st. Mike (Norwegian Sea)
Central Greenland Sea
Temperature
anomaly
Salinity
anomaly
Holliday et al., 2008
Temperature
anomaly
Salinity
anomaly
Surface waters
Mode water (ENACW)
Temperature (°C)
Temperature (°C)
Salinity
Prior to 2000
Since 2000
less sea-ice
more sea-ice
Meier et al., 2012
Barnes et al. 2012
Summer sea-ice extension anomaly
Annual sea-ice extension anomaly
Air. Tem (mid-latitudes:30°-50°N) - Air. Tem (Arctic: 70°-85°N)
Blocking anomalies can induce effective downward heat and salt injection after years of sustained warming and saltening at the surface.

The concentration of blocking anomalies at the eastern NAtlantic seems related with warm periods of the Arctic Ocean, whose more obvious manifestation is the sea-ice retreat, and has effects also on ocean circulation contributing to the contraction of the subpolar gyre and leaving the door opened to the penetration of salty waters from the south towards the Nordic Seas which are a controlling influence on the Arctic Mediterranean heat uptake and on the formation of the densest, deepest waters.

This mechanism could contribute to hiatus periods and explain why the transfer of the missing heat both in the atmosphere and the upper ocean to the deep ocean is not observed due to its episodic nature.
Larsen et al., 2012
Somavilla et al., 2011
1994
2004
2000
1996
1998
2002
2006
BoB
NS entrance
central GS
Atmospheric wave pattern
Zonal winds
1. Extra heat accumulated during summer in the Arctic warms the troposphere.

2. Slower zonal winds
3. More persistent weather conditions: Blocking anomalies
4. Contraction of the subpolar gyre
Preferred location of blocking anomalies
Penetration of salty and warm waters
5.
Santander
KEY POINT:
EXCEPTIONAL EVENT.
There have not been deep convection reaching the
GSDW in the last 30 years.
Somavilla et al., 2013
+
-
+
-
NCEP
NCEP2
ERA40
ERAInterim

from CORA4 data and Argo floats
central GS
NS entrance
BoB
salinity anomaly
Hátún et al, 2005
Somavilla et al., 2009
Somavilla et al., 2011
Meier et al., 2012
Häkkinen, 2011
Barriopedro et al., 2008
Balmaseda et al., 2013
Holliday et al., 2008
Full transcript