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Transcript of LET
Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET)
To think critically a teacher-reader -
must show an active, purposeful, organized cognitive process to carefully examine his/her thinking and the thinking of others, in order to clarify and improve own understanding
should examine and test suggested solutions to see whether they will work
it comes from the Greek word for critic (kritikos), which means to question, to make sense of, to be able to analyze
it is not simply one way of thinking; it is a total approach to understanding how we make, sense of a world that includes many parts
need to test ideas of flaws or defects and must not be inhibited by fear of being aggressive and destructive, nor have fear of retaliation, and over-evaluation
should engage in critical thinking activities such as thinking actively, carefully exploring situations with questions, thinking for oneself, viewing situations from different perspectives, and discussing ideas in organized ways
------ Willing to take a stand
A teacher-reader practice skills in metacognition by -
being aware of one's mental processes such that one can monitor, regulate, and direct them to a desired end
having the ability to think about and control own learning
practicing self-recognition and monitoring comprehension by answering the following questions:
1) Are there any words I don't understand?
2) Is there any information that doesn't agree with what I already know?
3) Are there any ideas that do not fit together because I can't tell who or
what is being talked about?
4) Are there any ideas that do not fit together because I can't tell how the ideas are related?
5) Are there any ideas that don't fit together because I think the ideas are contradictory?
6) Is there any information missing or not clearly explained?
Some reading concepts a teacher-reader has to be familiar with:
The constructivist's view of comprehension
Comprehension is the act of making sense or constructing meaning of the text. Writers begin with texts-in-the-head and prepare, to the best of their linguistic and rhetorical competence, printed texts, which readers use as blueprints to construct their own meaning. However, the readers' prior knowledge, particularly of word meanings, greatly affects the comprehension of texts.
Factors that affect comprehension
1) what the reader brings to the reading situation
2) the characteristics of the written text
3) the learning context that defines the task and the purpose of the reader
4) the strategies consciously applied by the reader to obtain meaning
Major Comprehension strategies
There are four major comprehension strategies - preparational, organizational, elaboration, and metacognitive.
This is considered as the stage of unconventional reading and writing, mostly influenced by environmental prints.
Children move from learning primarily through direct sensory contact and physical manipulation to using an intuitive kind of logic to form concrete concepts.
Theories support Emergent Literacy
1) Rousseauian stance
2) Piagetian stance
3) Vygotsky's stance
4) Barlett's stance
What are effective comprehension strategies?
1. Overview - strategy in which teachers tell students about the selection or assignment prior to reading, serves to activate relevant schemata that students hold in long-term memory and often enrich and refine those schemata. Advance organizers and structured overviews are examples of this strategy.
2. Vocabulary Preview - a strategy that starts from identifying and selecting words that may cause problems, then proceeds to explaining in advance these unfamiliar words to students. Teaching problem words provides "anchors for new information", provides opportunites to relate unfamiliar concepts to familiar ones, and is one aspect of developing the general background knowledge necessary for comprehension.
3. Structural Organizer - a strategy that teaches students to focus attention on the ways passages are organized. Before students read an assignment
The preparational strategies are: The elaboration strategies are:
1. previewing 1.making inferences
2.activating prior knowledge 2.imaging
3.setting purpose and goals 3.generating questions
4.predicting 4.evaluating (critical reading)
The organizational strategies are: The Metacognitive strategies are:
4.evaluating (critical reading) 1. regulating
1.comprehending the main idea 2.checking
2.determining important details 3.repairing