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Ethics TOK

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Kalyx McGee

on 27 May 2014

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Transcript of Ethics TOK

What is Ethics about?
Scope & Applications

What role does language play in the collection of knowledge?
Concepts & Language
What are some current open unanswered questions?
Scope & Applications even more continued...
from false information, or personal judgement
1. moral principles that govern a person's or group's behavior
2. the branch of knowledge that deals with moral principles


Significance of Ethics
Moral code/guideline
Moral code created in 2003 by Dr. Kent M. Keith and is based on the basic thoughts on how we live and how we should treat others

personal/social values

Current Form
ethics is based strictly on societal thoughts
Historical Development
Connections to personal knowledge
-Significance of Ethics
Ethics sets up a moral code that people follow to promote social and personal values. This is important because it is a guideline of how people live their lives and makes us unique as individuals.
-Nature of ethics
Ethics leads to a lot of disputes because many people view ethics as the guideline of their life and when they are challenged they see it as a personal attack against their beliefs.
-Responsibilities of people
People are responsible for using the stop light method to give their ethical opinion at the appropriate times.
Ethical implications call you to use the stop light method to show your opinion and take action against the things you view as immoral.
The most common assumption in ethics is that if you stick up for what you view as socially or morally right you are stubborn. On the other hand if you do not stick up for your ethics you are thought to be immoral and lack personal guidelines.

Why is it important? & What practical problems can be solved through applying it?
Scope & Applications continued..
Ethics Quotes

-Moral Philosophy
-the study of how to live our lives morally
-Ethics= the STUDY of morals
-base of all our decisions; use it to judge & its used in every life situation
-We're all trying to figure out how to live our life correctly
- primary AOK that our world revolves around
-"Morality is the custom of one's country and the current feelings of ones peers."
~Samuel Butler
- Vegetarianism, violence & lying
- the death penalty
-separation of religion & state
-paying college student athletes
-schools requiring uniforms
-same sex marriages
-legalization of marijuana
-animal rights
“It is forbidden to kill; therefore all murderers are punished unless they kill in large numbers and to the sound of trumpets.”
- Voltaire

"Reach for the sky!"
- Woody

"A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes."
This is the last Scopes & Applications one I promise..
What are some considerations that limit the scope of inquiry?
-heritage/culture (race)
-home life
-personal preferences

Concepts & Language Continued..
What Methods? (attempts to determine the extent to which they are compatible or incompatible)
egoistic hedonism (achieving one's own happiness is the proper goal of all conduct)
intuitionism (primary truths and principles are known directly by intuition)
universalistic hedonism (supreme good and the determining consideration of moral conduct is the greatest happiness of the greatest number)
by: Henry Sidgwick


Alchin, Nicholas. Theory of knowledge. 2nd ed. London: Hodder Murray, 2006. Print.
"Ethics." theoryofknowledgenet. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 May 2014. <http://www.theoryofknowledge.net/areas-of-knowledge/ethics/>.
"Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews." The Development of Ethics: A Historical and Critical Study; Volume I: From Socrates to the Reformation // Reviews // // University of Notre Dame. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2014. <https://ndpr.nd.edu/news/23617-the-development-of-ethics-a-historical-and-critical-study-volume-i-from-socrates-to-the-reformation/>.
"The Development of Ethics: Volume 2." : Hardback: Terence Irwin. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2014. <http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199543274.do>.
"The Kennedy Institute of Ethics." Home ::. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2014. <https://kennedyinstitute.georgetown.edu/>.
Method (Continuation)
What counts as a fact?
The things you can touch, taste, feel, see, hear are considered fact yet also considered "isness" (something that exist)

For example, Borton is a street in Wichita Falls Tx.
- fact
- even if all the buildings, gravel, grass disappear it's still Borton & even if they change the name there is still that street in Wichita Falls TX
Method of Ethics - rational procedures which enable us to determine what we should voluntarily do (or what it is right for us to do) in a particular situation
Ethics Method Role Model (Authority)
Henry Sidgwick
May 31, 1838 - August 28, 1900 (62 yrs old)
Philosopher & Economist
Education from Rugby & Trinity College
Founders & First President of the Society of Psychical Research
promoted the higher education of women (founded Newnham College in Cambridge in 1875. Newnham College is a women-only constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. It was the second Cambridge college to admit women after Girton College)
Member of the Metaphysical Society
He's a role model because he did his research in philosophy and the beginnings and majority of ethics is philosphy. Also, because he came up with a method for ethics.

it differs from person to person based on their happiness
also, others may see happiness differently
the freedom and the way that one is brought up may change the way they feel/judge certain situation
-its our way of communicating the use of ethics
-depends on how we process language to determine the ethics
-different processes create different ethical beliefs
What metaphors are appropriate for the ethics?
"Morality, like language, is an invented structure for conserving and communicating order. And morality is learned, like language, by mimicking and remembering."
~Jane Rule
Concepts & Language Again...
What is the role of convention in the ethics?
-religion, peers, home life, etc..
-"living life"
-"right/ wrong"
-what ethics are influenced by... so these help us determine what is right & wrong.
-first words that come to mind when thinking about ethics.
-what we take into consideration.
-what personal ethics are based on.
Stop Light
red=do not proceed, often a decision that is not accepted by the majority of society
gay marriage
underage drinking
drug use
yellow=proceed with caution, restrain from making these decisions
green=proceed, decisions that are acceptable to society
Life much like the vacations we take is thought to be with journey so just like when we drive we need to pay close attentions to the "stop lights" as we go through life.
The Moon
The moon represents our goals and ambitions because just like the moon in the beginning our goals seem unattainable, a representation of what we must work to have.
Historical Figures
Sam Harris (1967- )
philosopher, neuroscientist, and a writer
advocate of skepticism
believes that morality should have a solid foundation based on truths that can be proven empirically
Gandhi (1869-1948)
lawyer by training
emerged as key leader of indian independence from British
main idea was non-violent civil disobedience established through religious tolerance and pluralism
The code:
Do not do to others what you would not like them to do to you.
Do not lie.
Do not steal.
Do not cheat.
Do not falsely accuse others.
Do not commit adultery.
Do not commit incest.
Do not physically or verbally abuse others.
Do not murder.
Do not destroy the natural environment upon which all life depends.

Do to others what you would like them to do to you.
Be honest and fair.
Be generous.
Be faithful to your family and friends.
Take care of your children when they are young.
Take care of your parents when they are old.
Take care of those who cannot take care of themselves.
Be kind to strangers.
Respect all life.
Protect the natural environment upon which all life depends.
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