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AP Bio: Bacteria and Archea

2 of 4 of my Biodiversity unit. Image Credits: Biology (Campbell) 9th edition, copyright Pearson 2011, & The Internet. Provided under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. By David Knuffke.
by

Deserae Good

on 17 March 2014

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Transcript of AP Bio: Bacteria and Archea

Prokaryotes
Domain Archea
Domain Bacteria
Make sure you can
Universal Common Ancestor
A Major dividing line of cellular life.
Prokaryotes: "Before the center"
No nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
2 of the 3 major domains of life, 1 of the classic 5 kingdoms.
Eukaryotes: "True center"
Have a nucleus & membrane-bound organelles
1 of the 3 major domains of life, 4 of the classic 5 kingdoms
Bacteria live EVERYWHERE!
Bacteria are the foundation of all ecosystems on the planet.
They tolerate vast ranges of environmental conditions.
Prokaryotes have a wide diversity of nutritional modes
The 3 Domains diverged very soon after life's last universal common ancestor
Not sure what it looked like, but we can make some inferences:
unicellular
heterotrophic
DNA as genetic information
General Characteristics:
prokaryotic, unicellular, various nutritional modes
cell walls made of peptidoglycan
Anatomy of a bacterium
Bacterial Genetics
Bacteria can be distinguished by the shape of their cells, and the colonies they form.
The bacterial cell wall is made of peptidoglycan.
There are two major ways the cell wall can be arranged.
gram staining: a way to determine the type of cell wall
Some bacteria have a capsule outside their cell wall
gram positive cocci (purple) & gram negative bacilli (pink)
This can make them more pathogenic (why?)
The bacterial cell membrane is the major organelle used for bacterial metabolism.

Bacteria have evolved all major forms of metabolism
Flagellum enable bacteria to move
Pilli help bacteria adhere
The bacterial flagellum evolved independently of eukaryotic flagella
The bacterial chromosome is a single circular piece of DNA
Bacteria also have small extrachromosomal DNA segments called plasmids
Binary fission: Bacterial reproduction.
The cell copies the chromosome and splits in half.
This is asexual, and can happen very fast.
1 bacterium can reproduce every 20 minutes
Ribosomes make proteins.
Bacterial ribosomes are smaller than eukaryotic ribosomes.
This makes them a good target for antibiotics (why?)
Horizonal transfer:
exchange of genetic information between bacterial cells
increases and spreads genetic diversity.
examples of "recombination" of DNA from 2 sources
Transformation:
bacteria take in plasmids from the environment
Conjugation:
bacteria exchange DNA through a direct connection
Transduction:
bacteria acquire new DNA from a phage (bacterial virus)
Bacterial Evolution Happens Very Fast (why?)
spirochete (spiral)
bacillus (rod-shaped)
bacillus (rod-shaped)
E.coli transformed with green flourescent protein
Griffith's transformation experiment
Data from the long term evolution experiment by Richard Lenski's lab, showing the evolution of E. coli's growth rate over 20,000 generations (~20 years)
Bacterial Ecology: Some Useful Examples
Bacteria as Pathogens:
a very small number of bacterial species can cause disease
(a) Borellia burgdorferi, a spirochete that causes lyme disease, endemic to Long Island.
(b) The Deer Tick, the organism that spreads lyme disease.
(c) The characeristic "Bull's Eye" rash that is an early sign of the disease.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics...
Cyanobacteria: the original photosynthetic organisms
Deinococcus radiodurans:

can tolerate massive amounts of radiation. Lives in nuclear power plant containment chambers.
Vibrio fischeri:
lives in marine organisms, providing bioluminescence
Alexander Flemming-
discovered the antibiotic penicillin, accidentally in 1928 (Nobel prize in f1945)
The Pennicillium mold produces penicillin (why?)
General Characteristics:
prokaryotic, unicellular, various nutritional modes
live in extreme environments ("extremophiles")
Why?
A Domain of weirdos
Discovered in the 1970's

Thought to be bacteria until the 1990's

Have enough unique properties/combinations of the other 2 domains to qualify as their own domain
Yellowstone's hot springs (a), Acidic mining runoff (b), and your water heater (c) are examples of the extreme environments where archea live.
(a)
(c)
(b)
Sulfolobus, an acidothermophillic bacterium
Methanogenic archea are able to convert complex hydrocarbons into methane.
A Classic Bacterial Cell
Colorized EMG of Bacteria (orange) on the head of a pin (purple)
Determine if a particular organism is eukaryotic or prokaryotic.

Identify the common structures of a prokaryotic cell and explain how each contributes to the overall functioning of the organism

Compare the major modes of prokaryotic genetic recombination.

Compare the biology and ecology of bacteria and archea.
Chlamydomonas: a Protist
Mammalian cells
Blue: Bacteria
Green: Archea
Red: Eukarya
Bacteria play very important roles in helping plants absorb soil nutrients
every day, half of the bacteria in the ocean are killed by phages
Life has diverged into 3 domains
Full transcript