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Sustainable Development

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Ankina Wong

on 11 March 2015

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Transcript of Sustainable Development

VS stick-frame construction
4 Perspectives
Individual
(it)
1. Perspective of Experience
Building
(it)
Public
(we)
3. Perspective of Cultures

Community
(its)
2. Perspective of Behaviors
4. Perspective of Systems
Sustainable Development

design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Sustainable Development
According to the Brundtland Commission,
The End
development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Aspects of Sustainable Development
Social Aspect
Improve the quality of life
-->Find ways to increase prosperity
-->Reduce overall waste and pollution

Meet our needs and aspirations

doing damage to the future
generations
Not just profit
community's imvestment
without
Environmental aspect
reduce environmental burden we put on our neighbour

help to preserve common resources

Source: http://www.sabmagazine.com/blog/2009/06/05/tomorrows-buildings-the-living-building-challence/

Source: http://www.homedesignfind.com/green/first-skyscraper-to-meet-living-building-challenge-in-portland/

Source: http://www.rmi.org/impact_bringing_clean_competitive_solar_power_to_scale

Design strategies
Economic Aspect
Hong Kong Case
1. Experiencing Perspective
2. Behavioural Perspective
3. Cultural Perspective
4. System Perspective
Concept

Hong Kong's First Pre-Certified LEED Platinum Building

Hysan Place
A redevelopment project

http://media.macaronmagazine.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Hysan-Place-Hong-Kong-Front-.jpg
http://www.greensawdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/plaque32.jpg

About Hysan Place

Building concerned

A way to help designers to design sustainable buildings in term of physical elements, materials, forms……
Objectives
To save any kind of resources
(energy, water, material......)

To lower the building emissions
(CO2, heat, exhaust......)
Principles
Design
high-performance buildings
Design with on-site renewable resources
Design to create
safe, healthy places with long-term value

A. Design with on-site renewable resources
Sun, wind, light......

Heating, cooling, lighting and energy
B. Design to create safe, healthy places with long-term value
X
Toxic building material

(Heavy metal)
Lead
Asbestos
A.
B.
C.
C. Design high-performance buildings
High-performance buildings
is a building that integrates and optimizes on a life cycle basis all major high performance attributes, including
energy conservation
,
environment
,
safety
,
security
,
durability
, accessibility, cost-benefit, productivity, sustainability, functionality, and operational considerations.
(Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, TITLE IV - Energy Savings in Buildings and Industry,SEC. 401. Definitions)
Maximize efficient use of water, energy and material
Minimizing waste and pollution
Reduce throughput and crate recycling
Source:http://www.empowernetwork.com/msilbiger/academic-articles-series-paradigms-of-consciousness-part-24/
HOLARCHY
- Nested context:
integrated smaller whole
→ individual system
→ part of larger system
(multiple scales)


CONCEPT

Source: http://www.homedesignfind.com/green/first-skyscraper-to-meet-living-building-challenge-in-portland/

Finding patterns to make an effective design
Buildings as ecosystem
Fitness to site & context

OBJECTIVE
PRINCIPLES
Source: http://web.whitelabelcomm.com/blog/bid/271245/Building-Quality-VoIP-Networks
- generate an experience of wholeness in each individual
- clear shared meanings of wholeness in groups
- organize systemically to create integrated whole systems that fit to Nature's wholeness

A. Design at three levels of holarchy

finding nature’s patterns
- fit flows to local renewable system

Source: http://bio4esobil2011.wordpress.com/2012/05/28/energy-flow-in-the-ecosystem-10-rule/

Source: http://www.rmi.org/impact_bringing_clean_competitive_solar_power_to_scale

B. Design living systems using ecology as the model

Source: http://www.dezeen.com/2012/08/18/saint-kjelds-climate-adapted-neighborhood-by-tredje-natur/

finding social pattern (location)
- analyzing to map → translate the patterns as diagram
- consideration:
local site, region,
neighborhood


Source:http://www.gardenvisit.com/history_theory/library_online_ebooks/architecture_city_as_landscape/classification_patterns

C. Design solutions fit to particular places
Design solutions
fit to particular
places
Design at three
levels of holarchy
Design living
systems using
ecolgy as the
model

A.
B.
C.
-the relationship between nature and human behavior

-Social interaction

-Green design ethic

CONCEPTS
Hawaii Gateway Energy Center, Ferraro Choi and Associates, Ltd, architect

1. Manifesting ecological value
2. Building can communicate their green intentions though design
3. Response to natural surroundings
4. Conveying symbolic meaning about culture’s relationship to nature

OBJECTIVES

the Hong Kong government set up
Sustainable development department
by the policy scheme in 1987.

The organization aims
to promote sustainable development
to Hong Kong, balancing the profits between economy, social and environment.

Main job is
to motivate the environmental policy
by the government to the public.
support to other organizations
by providing funds, held talks regularly and so on.

Situation in Hong Kong
PRINCIPLES
Design for culture communication by using symbolic languages of design
Design based on a high and conscious environmental ethic
Design to place people into significant relationships with nature

A.
B.
C.

The Sustainable Development Fund has been established with a sum of
$100 million

The aim is to provide a central source of
financial support
for initiatives that will help develop sustainable development

and to
encourage sustainable practices
in Hong Kong
Sustainable Development Fund
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9e/Hysan_Place,_Level_4,_Sky_Garden_(Hong_Kong).jpg
http://www.prc-magazine.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/ROF-Media-@-Hysan-Place-3.jpg

Design strategies

What is Environmental ethic?
It is the value suggested that mankind should place on protecting, conserving, and efficiently using resources that the earth provides.

Sources: What are Environmental ethics by Manali Oak, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/what-is-environmental-ethics.html
A. Design based on a high and conscious environmental ethic

The Sustainable Development School Award Programme
http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2012/11/Hysan-Place-Hong-Kong-4.jpg

A wonderful expression of solids and voids provide green space and daylight

Design strategies for sustainable development

A. Design based on a high and conscious environmental ethic

2. Use of natural lighting rather than artificial lighting
->caused less influences to the wildlife

1. Prohibiting cutting of trees

Encourage schools to
promote sustainable development

(SD) awareness and
practices in schools
and the
community
.
1. Using the landscape responsibly
B. Design to place people into significant relationships with nature
http://www.architectmagazine.com/Images/tmpA408.tmp_tcm20-1987170.jpg
http://www.arup.com/~/media/Images/Projects/H/Hysan_Place/Hysan%20Place%20at%20Lee%20Gardenss3c%20Arup.ashx?bc=ffffff&as=1&mw=218&thn=0&w=218

Urban Windows – large openings at lower levels in the building

Allowing efficient air flow through the area

Reduce wall effects and retaining a high level of permeability

Reduce the heat island effect with their lush greenery

Causewaybay is a high density area - good ventilation is important
Design strategies for sustainable development

1. Representative form
C. Design for culture communication by using symbolic languages of design
Concept
http://www.indesignlive.asia/media/idlasia/2012/Aug/Project/KPF/hero.jpg

41% carbon reduction compared with normal retail and office buildings

Design strategies for sustainable development

It is about our feeling, emotion and affection to our surrounding

Connecting human heart to building

http://www.irasia.com/listco/hk/hysan/press/p121220.gif

Social aspect:
Integration of commercial necessity and building sustainability
Drive the industry and community to be greener and better
Shared sustainability concept in the presentation

Sustainable aspects

Economic aspect:
Shopping mall and commercial mix building maintain business necessary for people
Rent and Business
Environmental aspect:
Natural ventilation for high rise building in a high density urban area
Reducing the influence from air pollution
Objectives
Principle
A. Design profound aesthetic experience
B. Design to access human
psychological connections to place
A.
B.
C.
C. Design centering places conductive
to self-aware transformation
Design profound aesthetic experience
Design to access human psychological connections to place
Design centering places conductive to self-aware transformation

reinforcing the relationship between
human, building and nature

tempt people to cherish our environment and hence protect it

-
Introducing
the broad
concept
of SD to students:
-
Raising
students'
awareness
of the importance of SD
-
Encouraging

students
to contribute to sustainable practices in their daily lives
-
spread

the SD message
to their families and within their local community
-
Creating an SD-community network
at district level and building capacity for the involved parties for future participation and collaboration in SD-related activities in future

Building should be a place that can comfort people mentally


Achievement and Organization
Professional green building council
Create ways to appreciate the existing situation and the nature
training their members by providing causes to develop green buildings. They also help the government to
promote green events
and
supervise the society
and governmental organization.
Business Environment Council
Eco Expo Asia
Hong Kong Sustainable Development Forum (HKSDF)
Building (Energy Efficiency) Regulation
Greening, Landscape and Tree Management Section
Tax Deduction on Environmental Facilities
promoting environmental excellence by
advocating the uptake of clean technologies
and practices which reduce waste, conserve resources, prevent pollution and improve corporate environmental and social responsibility
to
explore new green or technology
products to the commercials
promote sustainable and related green evens.
Limit the energy use of the building

Encourage developers to building more green area and
design energy efficiency buildings

Providing
protection, caring and checking to the trees
in surrounding area

tax deduction for
environment-friendly developers
Making subjective aesthetic response with both individual variation and the deep structures of collective response


introduced the idea of “green housing”
exemption of GFA calculations
or payment of standardized premium rates.

sustainable Development (SUSDEV21) was commissioned by Planning Department

provides
supporting, funds and education
resources to organizations in social and commercial to continued sustainable development.

Environment
Hong Kong has been promoting the concept of sustainable development since the
2000s.
Economic
Social
HIGHEST PLATINUM level- First building certified Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standard

BEAM Plus Platinum (Hong Kong Building Environmental Assessment Method)

MIPIM Asia Award 2012 – Gold Award winner, Best Mixed-Use Development

Green Building Award 2012 — Merit Award, New Building – Hong Kong (Building under Construction)

Best Practice in Green Organisation Development 2011


Integrate a series of terraces, atriums and roof gardens into the tower structure

Continuous sense of materiality with various geometries

The vertical circulation of escalators (picture) even takes the facades


http://www.irasia.com/listco/hk/hysan/press/p121220.gif

Integration of commercial necessity and building sustainability

Drive the industry and community to be greener and better

Shared sustainability concept in the presentation

Sustainable aspects

Having appropriate feeling in different building design
Sustainable Strategies
Active
Passive
Alternative energy use
Clean water
OTTV
Overall Thermal Transfer Value
Average rate of heat transfer into a building

Lower the OTTV = higher the resistances of heat flow
Rain water reusing
Collecting and reuse
the rain water
Reduce
the waste the fresh water usage.


Take out and Reuse if needed
Toilet flushing
Washing Machine
X Drinking

Factors affecting the OTTV
building orientation
materials of walls and roof
external finishes
color of walls
type of glass
shading of windows
Solar hot water system
Hot water systems use the
sun’s energy
to heat water
The heated water is then
stored
in an insulated storage
tank
free

hot water
supply without using any
electricity and fuel
Objectives
The water will be collected in rainy day and store.

Reducing
the need of
fuel and CO2 emission
Limitations
Ground-Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs)
the system can
pump the heat
into the house
laid horizontally to maximum the heat gain
Gathering heat in the winter (free)
Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs)
Structural Insulated Panels
Double Skin
External Wall
achieve
reduce
fuel usage
reduce
CO2 emission
reduce
the waste of energy.
High efficiency
Good overall thermal performance
Roof

Renewable Energy
What are sustainable building materials?
Skylight

Green Roof
Ecologically responsible
Less harmful compared with traditional building materials
Increase labor productivity of building occupants

Making use of prefabrication
Low VOC Paint
VOC is stand for volatile organic compounds
Chemical compounds inside, harmful to human health
odorless and no chemical solvents

reduce site waste and pollution
Sandwiched between two skins
Bamboo Flooring
Long lasting and rapidly renewable
good aesthetic and easy to install
Rapidly - harvested in a 10-year or shorter period

expanded polystyrene (EPS) core
with
adhesive-attached oriented-strand board (OSB) facings
Wool Carpeting
Sustainable Technology
Uses:
To shed more natural light into the building
To reduce the electricity to supply light
The benefits are diminished during overcast days
Solar air conditioning
Heat recovery ventilation
Seasonal thermal energy storage
Skylight
Wind Power

offer ventilation
an updraft created to freshen or change the air in a building.
ideal for kitchens and bathrooms.

Mostly use in residential and commercial carpeting floor
Rapidly renewable and has low VOC emissions
Advantages :
Fire resistant
Stain and soil resistant
Natural air purifier
Climate control
Ventilating skylights

charge up the battery
Solar air conditioning
turbine fans generate
electric power
Fixed skylights
are used solely for the purpose of providing natural light to a room
is ideal for attics, extra rooms, workshops or anywhere extra illumination is desired
Less influences caused in case of bad weather situation


release the electric power
for the electrical machines
X
Wind is not available all the time
Tubular skylights

X
Different speeds
newest types of skylights
small in size(10 to 14 inches)
ideal for situations where a normal, full-sized skylight cannot be installed.
Despite their size, tubular skylights can provide large amounts of light.


Wind energy
itself is effectively
free
Pros
Cons
Green Roof
Cotton Batt Insulation
Reduce
energy consumed
Sustainable, able to self-contained
No pollution concerning burning of fuels
Easy to set up
Cut cost
Lower carbon footprint

Building Protection
Temperature Regulation
Improved Air Quality
Solar Energy
No green house gases
No chemical by-product
Spaces are required to put the equipment
Sources are unstable
Generate
electric
power
and charge up the battery
Provide extra energy
Extensive Green Roof
Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage
Intensive Green Roof
Provide
shading
for some zoons
Reduce
the cooling energy
a deeper soil base
greater water retention capacity
not limited in plant diversity
extra space for recreation.

Limitation:
- Substantial building structure is required
- more cost, design time
Natural insulator
High thermal resistivity values
Emits no VOC’s
sound insulator and 100% recyclable
Higher R-Value
No formaldehyde or other toxic elements
Help qualify for LEED
No itchiness, no cancer risk
Ecological

Concrete
Normal concrete - large impact on global warming,
staggering 7-10% of global CO2 emissions
Mix concrete with recycled materials
Recycled materials :
recycled wood chips,
crushed glass or
slag
Kinetic Energy
stores heat or cold for periods of up to
several months
change the ‘human power’ by pushing the door to the electric power
Paper Insulation Panels
Made from recycled newspapers and cardboards Fire-resistant
Not cause health problems
Blown into cavity walls
filling every crack
creating draft-free space
Assessment methods

There are different type of building assessment methods for different countries. Here, we will list some of the most common system.
LEED
GREENGLOBES
GREEN MARK
BEAM PLUS


Leadership in Energy and Environment Design program

USA / US green building council



LEED

Sustainable sites credits

impact on ecosystems and water resources
Water efficiency credits 
potable water consumption
Energy & atmosphere credits 

building energy performance
Materials & resources credits 

sustainable building materials and reducing wast
e
Indoor environmental quality credits 
indoor air quality and access to daylight and views
Innovation in design or innovation in operations credits 
other
Regional priority credits

geographic regions

Rating system

Canada and the USA

Green Building Initiative (GBI)

online assessment protocol

GREENGLOBES

Rating system

Rating Scale

BCA Green Mark Scheme

Singapore

Mandatory in Singapore

Benefit
Green Mark

BEAM (copy of British system)

Hong Kong

Voluntary



BEAM PLUS

Plus:
Local regulations, standards and codes of practice

planning
design
construction
management
operation
maintenance of buildings

Rating

takes around 10 mouths for the assessment to complete. (Registration, Submission & Preliminary Technical Screening, assessment, certification and appeal periods.)
http://www.hkgbc.org.hk/upload/beamdocuments/beamplusdoc/BEAMPlus_AssessmentProcess(05122012)_v3.5.pdf


Assessment process

Example

There is an online registration for this scheme and it will take
2 weeks
to complete.
http://www.hkgbc.org.hk/eng/BeamPlusProjectRegistration.aspx
Join by mean of filling in the blank.
It charges according to the GFA of the assessed building.
Non-governmental organizations can get a 20% discount.


How to participate?

1.BEAM-PLUS should become mandatory for both residential and commercial buildings, but not voluntary, because only by this measure can us improve the overall quality of the urban situations.
2.To encourage developers to become more green and sustainable, the authority should benefit the green building in different ways, for example, increases their GFA ratio, offers subsidies, gives awards and so on.
3.Government should promote oversea participations of local green project and program (BEAM-PLUS) in order to enhance the scheme and gain popularity for Hong Kong sustainable buildings.


Recommendation

Shading from nearby buildings
Limit the freedom of building design
Loopholes in OTTV Calculations
Promote energy conservation
Improve energy efficiency in buildings
Encourage climate-responsive building planning and design

Case study: Stanley Municipal Services Building
Given,
All three walls are south-facing
Assume the width of the walls is 1m
All three window use tinted glass with shading coefficient of 0.7
Solar factor=191Wm^-2
External shading multiplier=1
All walls and concrete beams have the same external surface and color
Solar absorptivity of all walls and beams=0.58
Equivalent temperature difference=1.4K
The U-value of a 600mm concrete beam=1.51 Wm^-2K^-1
The U-value of a 100mm concrete panel=2.32 Wm^-2K^-1

OTTV1>OTTV2>OTTV3
The above calculations show that OTTV is mainly governed by the ratio of opaque wall area to fenestration area. The higher the proportion of window area is, the higher the OTTV.

1. Holiday Inn Express Hong Kong SoHo
Owner/Developer: Tact Champion Co Limited
GFA (m2) Assessed: 9,163
Architect: Chau Ku & Leung Architects & Engineers Ltd.
 
2. Hysan Place
Owner/Developer: Hysan Development Co. Ltd.
GFA (m2) Assessed: 66,500
Architect: Dennis Lau & Ng Chun Man Architects & Engineers (H.K.) Ltd., Kohn Pederson Fox Associates, Benoy
http://www.beamsociety.org.hk/en_index.php


Revolving Door
it is a new technology used in building to turn K.E. into usable energy.
Power Floor
The main theory is that just change the
‘human power’
by pushing the door
to the electric power
for the building.

come into the building and
rotating the door
the door will start rotate and
move the generators
and then generate power.

The Sustainable Dance Floor modules
flex slightly when stepped on
which creates a movement that can be transformed into electric power by a small
internal generator
.
Pros
Reduce carbon footprints
Reduce the bill in long term

Cons
clogging, scaling, corrosion and leaching may occur underground
High running and maintainance cost

Heat recovery ventilation
It employ a 
counter-flow heat exchanger
between the inbound and outbound air flow.
Pros
Cons
provide fresh air
improve climate control
saving energy by reducing heating and cooling requirements

Air quality is
site-dependent
require
above 0°C
incoming air (Otherwise the outgoing air may condense, freeze and block the heat exchanger.)

a relatively shallow soil base
lighter, less expensive
easier to maintain

Limitation:
limited plant diversity ( sedum, grasses, mosses, and herbs)


Effect
- natural ventilation
- daylighting
- thermal insulation
- aesthetic impact

Double Skin
Exterior glazing (fully glazed)
- hardened single glazing

Interior glazing
- Insulating double glazing unit

Air cavity between two panes
- width: narrow (10 - 20 cm)
/ wide (around 2m)

Classification
a. Multi story
b. Corridor
c. Box
d. Shaft box

Double Skin
Limitation
- higher construction costs
- reduction of usable space
- increased construction weight
- overheating problems
- transmission of smoke in case of fire

easy to maintain
low price
modern
stable
reliable
low price
reliable
stable

flexible
easy to maintain
Full transcript