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Addressing the Needs of Language Minorities in Mainstream Classes

EDF2085 Prof. Charlotteaux
by

Maria Larrotta

on 16 June 2013

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Transcript of Addressing the Needs of Language Minorities in Mainstream Classes

EDF2085
Professor Dominique Charlotteaux

By:
Patricia Kujack
Maria Larrotta
Diana Vargas


Addressing the Needs of Language Minorities in Mainstream Classes

A big challenge that many educators in the United States and in other English-speaking countries are facing is how to teach students for whose English is not their primary language, and how to help them to overcome all the cultural and linguistic barriers that strike them

“The term English Language Learner (ELL) refers to a person whose first language is not English. This includes individuals who are at various stages of English language acquisition or different levels of English proficiency. In schools, English language learners are also commonly referred to for programming and assessment purposes as students with Limited English Proficiency (LEP), English as a Second Language (ESL), or English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL)” (Johns Hopkins University, 2012)

English Language Learner is a student who:
Has another language other than English as his or her native language, and was not born in the United States; or
Although was born in the U.S., was raised by a family or relatives who did not speak English and who used another language for communication; or
Is an American Indian or Alaskan Native with a low level of English Language Proficiency caused by the significant impact of his or her native language; and
Who as a result of the above, deals with lots of problems to speak, read, write, or understand the English language which minimize their chances to learn successfully in classrooms.

Defining Who Is an ELL Student

English Language Learners by State

ELL is the fastest growing group .According to the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) the fastest grow of ELL students occurs in grades 7-12.
Almost all states in the United States today have populations of ELL students.
The majority of ELL students are immigrants that face the challenge of acquiring English language and academics.



Statistics


According to the ELL Information Center Fact Sheet Series, Spanish is the language most often spoken by English Language Learners, but it is not the top language spoken by ELL students in every state
California (28.28%), Texas (13.34%), Florida (4.82%), New York (4.29%), and Illinois (3.91%) are the states with the largest ELL enrollments, according to The National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition



The National Assessment of Educational Progress reported that in 2009, 71% of ELLs in fourth grade and 74% in eight grade scored below basic in their reading ability
The ELLs in grades Pre-K through 12 are approximately 5 millions, more than 10% of the total public enrollment
From the ELLs in grades Pre-K through 12 who are concentrated in urban and predominantly minority and low-income districts, the 80 % are Spanish speakers.


“Across the nation, the number of students from non-English speaking backgrounds continues to rise. They represent the fastest growing segment of the student population by a wide margin. From 1991–1992 through 2001–2002, the number of identified ELLs in public schools (K–12) grew 95%, while total enrollment increased by only 12%. In 2002–2003, more than 5 million school-age children were identified as ELLs, 10.2% of the K–12 public school student population (Padolsky, 2004). These students speak more than 400 languages, but nearly 80% are native Spanish speakers (Kindler, 2002)”

Bilingual Education and ESL programs both promote English proficiency of ELL students in the United States; contrary to ESL programs which only rely on English for instruction, Bilingual Education may use the native language and English for teaching and learning.

NABE is an association representing bilingual, English language learners and the professionals that teach it. As we all know, non-native speakers are the minority in the United States therefore, it is crucial that they receive equal and fair funding for their education.

The mission of this organization is to be an advocate for those bilingual and English language learners, their teachers, and their families as well. With the support of this incredible association for advancements and continuous research, our society is likely to become more and more multicultural. The mission of this organization is to provide resources to teachers and families of ELL’s, and to facilitate the long journey ahead.

The National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE)

This association is affiliated with 21 states and it has over 5,000 memberships from bilingual educators, administrators, paraprofessionals, university professors and students, researchers, advocates, policymakers, and parents. The states involved are:
The National Association for Bilingual Education

Alaska
Arizona
California
Florida
Idaho
Kansas
Louisiana
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Dakota
Texas
Utah
Washington
Wisconsin
The membership fees have a wide spectrum , from $30 for college students, professionals, and parents to $1000 for a lifetime membership. Other prices and memberships include: $55 for a state affiliate, $60 for an individual membership, and $125 for an institutional membership. Becoming a member entitles you to six annual issues of news about NABE, lower rates for subscriptions to NABE’s Bilingual Research Journal, special member rates for the NABE conferences, complete access to their website, and membership into the special interest groups. NABE is a network of groups and individuals who can get connected and share information about improving the education for english language learners (Thomas, 2011).



NABE Membership

Special interest groups focus on every level of schooling from Early childhood Education to Gifted to Instructional technology. Other SIGS are Critical Pedagogy, Language Policy, Special Education, ELL Secondary Education and a few more (Muñoz, Reading in The Borderlands, 2013). These special interest groups are like smaller, more specific branches of NABE. There is someone in charge of each, and members all work together in that specific level of schooling.

Special Interest Groups (SIGS)

Over the past 40 years NABE has managed to accomplish many great things for the bilingual and ELL’s in education. “NABE has provided more than 50 thousand hours of professional development and leadership training in bilingual education, biliteracy, multicultural competency and instructional leadership at its annual international conferences” (NABE, 2012).
Some of their many successes listed on their website include:
Hired corporate fund raising consultant to establish a corporate and foundation giving strategy to pursue major corporate partnership relations and grants.
NABE serves on the President’s Initiative to Improve Education Excellence for Hispanic Americans, OELA’s advisory committee, and other policy and advocacy groups in Washington, D.C.
Expanded the sponsorship and exhibitors support with its education publishers and corporate supporters.
Provided strong advocacy effort by participating in meeting at the US Department of Education (USDOE) and with members of the United States Congress to voice strong support for bilingual education programs and native language assessments regarding the re-authorization of ESEA, America’s Job Act and the Workforce Investment Act, (WIA).
NABE joined many civil and consumer rights groups protesting the actions of Governors of Alabama, Arizona and Mississippi for mean-spirited, anti-immigrant legislation and policies that affects students, teachers and parents.




NABE Accomplishments


It is important that future teachers take into account students cultural identities, ethnic backgrounds, and language barriers to better understand and implement integration in the classroom

Plan and evaluate instructional outcomes, recognizing the effects of race, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and religion on the results.
Design effective unit and daily lesson plans to successfully meet the needs of ESOL students.
Create a positive classroom environment to easily accommodate the learning styles and cultural backgrounds of students and make them feel accepted.
Administer tests and interpret test results.
Stay up-to-date with trends related to teaching and testing ESL learners.
Recognize indicators of learning disabilities, especially hearing and language impairment, and limited English proficiency.
Implement strategies for using home and school resources within the curriculum.
Performance Standards for ESOL Teachers

Recognize the major differences and similarities among the cultural groups in the U.S. and more specifically the students.
Use appropriate teaching techniques for individuals and groups, using knowledge of first and second language acquisition processes.
Be able to find and use resources in ESOL methodologies.
Analyze student language and determine the teaching techniques that should be used.
Apply strategies for developing and integrating the four language skills of listening composition, oral communication, reading, and writing.


Performance Standards for ESOL Teachers

The state objectives for AMAOs 1 and 2 were set through a method in which the percentage associated with the district at the 20th percentile was set as the starting point for the state objectives. The endpoints were set using the percentage associated with the district at the 75th percentile. This specific end-point is to be met by the year 2013-14. The goal is increased each year until the 100th percentile is reached.


Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives (AMAO)

District AMAO 1 (Progress toward English Language Acquisition as measured by CELLA): Percent of K-12 students increasing the proficiency in each of the CELLA three domains: Listening/Speaking, Writing, and Reading. In order for a district to meet AMAO 1, the district must demonstrate that a certain percentage of their ELLs are advancing in each of the three areas. All English Language. Looking from year to year, 1-3% have advanced. Comparing 2008-09 to 2013-14, the increase in proficiency is phenomenal. Slowly but surely, ELLs are inching closer and closer to the final goal.

Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives (AMAO)

District AMAO 2 (English Language Acquisition Proficiency as measured by CELLA): Percent of each grade cluster of students (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12) who score proficient in each of the CELLA domains: Listening/Speaking, Writing, and Reading. In order to meet the AMAO 2 goal, the district has to show that a certain percentage of ELL’s are increasing in proficiency in the three domains. For the 2009-10 school year the AMAO 2 targets were updated to reflect all students.

Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives (AMAO)

The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP), is one of those instructional practices known with the term “Sheltered Instruction” designed to make content more accessible and comprehensible for ELL students; as it is stated by its developers Jana Echevarría, MaryEllen Vogt, and Deborah Short, “The SIOP is research-based and field-tested. Teachers who used the SIOP checklist for lesson planning became more proficient in linking language and content in their instruction, felt more in control of their professional development, and increased their ability to accommodate different levels of proficiency in their classrooms.”

The SIOP Model

Some important components are:
Write clearly defined content objectives(SIOP component #1)
Write clearly defined language objectives (SIOP component #2)
Explicitly link concepts to students' backgrounds and experiences (SIOP component #7)
Explicitly link past learning and new concepts (SIOP component #8)
Emphasize key vocabulary (SIOP component #9)
Use speech appropriate for students' level of proficiency (SIOP component #10)
Provide adequate wait time for student responses (SIOP component #18
Provide multiple opportunities for interaction and discussion (SIOP component #16)
Student engagement 90 to 100% (SIOP component #25)


Components of the SIOP Model

Magic Buttons and Short Story Flow Chart
are some of the SIOP Model activities


Schools should determine the type of academic assistance the student should receive based on different types of assessments.
It is recommended that students with a linguistic and culturally diverse background be tested .
It should include teacher’s observations, standardized tests, home survey and parents input.






The Associate Director of American Federation of Teachers Beth Antunez, recommends the following when teaching ELL students:
1. Phonemic awareness
2. Phonics
3. Vocabulary development
4. Reading fluency, including oral reading skills
5. Reading comprehension strategies
The Five Essential Components of Reading Instruction

It’s understood that words are made up of small sound units; there are 41 phonemes in the English language that combine to form syllables and words; for example the word “that” is composed of three phonemes th/a/t


1. Phonemic Awareness

Some phonemes may be absent in the native language of an ELL student . Therefore, it is important for teachers to teach the meaning of the word.
Teachers should introduce phonemes to ELL students that don’t exist in their native language.
Additionally, teachers should reinforce the phonemes with activities such as songs, poems, etc.

Three elements to consider when teaching phonemes to ELL students

The relationship between letters and sounds is commonly known.
Teachers should take into account students whose level of literacy in their native language is low.
Students may have learned to read and write in a native language in which the letters correspond to different sounds than they do in English, or they may have learned to read and write in a language with characters that correspond to words or portions of words (Antunez, 2002).

2. Phonics

Vocabulary development is a vital factor when a student is learning to read; it determines reading comprehension.
Antunez recommends that teachers consider the following:
Students should clearly understand what is written; consequently, vocabulary has to be a daily part of the curriculum.
Students should retain meaning of words learned through conversations, specially adults.
Vocabulary used for everyday language differs from language in an academic setting; a student can hold a conversation with peers ,but can not understand concepts in science or math.

3. Vocabulary Development

Reading fluency is defined by how quickly, effectively, and expressively a person reads.
There are two pedagogic approaches that has been used to teach fluency; one is when the student reads aloud and the other is silent reading.

4. Reading Fluency, Including Oral Reading Skills

According to Antunez’ article:
The Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement (CIERA) recommends that ELL students read in their primary language. CIERA also advises they read big books aloud, as well as with accomplished readers.
Accents should not be mistaken with fluency . Many ELL students will have an accent as they are learning to master the English language.


Considerations when teaching fluency

Reading comprehension is the highest point of the four skills learned.

The National Reading Panel (NRP) states that reading comprehension is interrelated with vocabulary knowledge and development. Additionally, there is an active process between the readers and the text.

5. Reading Comprehension Strategies

“Parents who refuse bilingual/ESL services for their children should be informed that their children’s long-term academic achievement will probably be much lower as a result.
English language learners immersed in the English mainstream because their parents refused bilingual/ESL services.
Students with no proficiency in English must not be placed in short-term programs of only 1-3 years.
An enrichment bilingual/ESL program must meet students’ developmental needs: linguistic, academic, cognitive, emotional, social, and physical.
Schools need to create a natural learning environment, with lots of natural, rich oral and written language used by students and teachers; meaningful, ‘real world’ problem-solving; all students working together; media-rich learning (video, computers, print); challenging thematic units that get and hold students’ interest; and using students’ bilingual-bicultural knowledge to bridge to new knowledge across the curriculum.” (Thomas & Collier, 2002)


Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence published the investigation done by Wayne Thomas and Virginia Collier from George Mason University, who analyzed the education services provided for language minority (LM) students in U.S. public schools; these are some important conclusions that they stated in their research:

The long term goal for Bilingual Education, ESL, and ESOL programs is to graduate language minority students who will have gained knowledge and skills that will successfully prepare them for the workplace

Carrasquillo, A. L., & Rodriguez, V. (2002). Language Minority Student in the Mainstream
Classroom (2nd ed.). Tonawanda, NY 14150, USA: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Thomas, W., & Collier, V. (2002). A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language
Minority Students' Long-Term Academic Achievement. Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence, UC Berkeley.

Thomas, M. (2011, May 27). Retrieved from Reading in The Borderlands: http://
readingintheborderlands.wordpress.com/2011/05/27/nabe-the-national-association-for-bilingual-education-2/

Florida Department of Education. (2013). English Language Learners (ELLs) Data Base
and Program Handbook. Retrieved from www.fldoe.org/aala/pdf/edph1011.pdf

Echevarría, J., Vogt, M. E., & Short, D. (2012). The SIOP Model. Retrieved from Pearson
Education: http://siop.pearson.com/tools-resources/index.html

Gollnick, D. M., & Chinn, P. C. (2013). Multicultural Education in a Pluralistic Society
(9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Pearson Education, Inc.






Works Cited

Batalova, J.,& McHugh, M. (2010). States and districts with the highest number and
share of English language learners. ELL Information Center Fact Sheet
Series (2). Retrieved from ‎
http://www.migrationinformation.org/ellinfo/FactSheet_ELL2.pdf
Batalova, J.& McHugh, M. (2010). Top languages spoken by English language learners
nationally and by state. ELL Information Center Fact Sheet (3). Retrieved
from http://www.migrationinformation.org/ellinfo/FactSheet_ELL3.pdf
National Council of Teachers of English. (2008) The Many Faces of English Language
Learners (ELLs).
Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders, W., & Christian, D. (2005). English Language
Learners in U.S. Schools: An overview of research findings . Journal of
Education for Students Placed at Risk, 10(4), 363–385.
Antunez, B. (2002) English Language Learners and the Five Essential Components of
Reading Instruction. Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/341/

Works Cited

Batalova, J.,& McHugh, M. (2010). States and districts with the highest number and
share of English language learners. ELL Information Center Fact Sheet
Series (2). Retrieved from ‎
http://www.migrationinformation.org/ellinfo/FactSheet_ELL2.pdf
Batalova, J.& McHugh, M. (2010). Top languages spoken by English language learners
nationally and by state. ELL Information Center Fact Sheet (3). Retrieved
from http://www.migrationinformation.org/ellinfo/FactSheet_ELL3.pdf
National Council of Teachers of English. (2008) The Many Faces of English Language
Learners (ELLs).
Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders, W., & Christian, D. (2005). English Language
Learners in U.S. Schools: An overview of research findings . Journal of
Education for Students Placed at Risk, 10(4), 363–385.
Antunez, B. (2002) English Language Learners and the Five Essential Components of
Reading Instruction. Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/341/

Works Cited

Works Cited
Batalova, J.,& McHugh, M. (2010). States and districts with the highest number and
share of English language learners. ELL Information Center Fact Sheet
Series (2). Retrieved from ‎
http://www.migrationinformation.org/ellinfo/FactSheet_ELL2.pdf
Batalova, J.& McHugh, M. (2010). Top languages spoken by English language learners
nationally and by state. ELL Information Center Fact Sheet (3). Retrieved
from http://www.migrationinformation.org/ellinfo/FactSheet_ELL3.pdf
National Council of Teachers of English. (2008) The Many Faces of English Language
Learners (ELLs).
Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders, W., & Christian, D. (2005). English Language
Learners in U.S. Schools: An overview of research findings . Journal of
Education for Students Placed at Risk, 10(4), 363–385.
Antunez, B. (2002) English Language Learners and the Five Essential Components of
Reading Instruction. Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/341/

The End!
Full transcript