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Lithium and Hydrogen by Awais Ahmed

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Awais Ahmed

on 4 February 2011

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Transcript of Lithium and Hydrogen by Awais Ahmed

Lithium Discovery: In 1817, Lithium was discovered by Johann A. Arfvedson in Stockholm, Sweden. Physical Properties: Solid
Soft silvery-white metal
Lithium is the least dense of all metals. Its density (0.534 g/cm^3) is half that of waters (1.00 g/cm^3).
Melting Point-180.54°C (356.97°F)
Boiling Point- 1,335°C (2,435°F) Chemical Properties: Lithium is an active metal
When exposed to water, acids, or oxidizing agents, lithium may cause an explosion
Near its melting point, lithium ignites in air.
With most acids, lithium gives off hydrogen gas.
Ionization Energy- 1st (520.2 KJ/mol) ; 2nd (7298.1 KJ/mol) Uses of Lithium: Lithium is used as an
important element in
many batteries. How to Obtain Lithium: Many sources of lithium are Spodumene, ambylgonite, lepidolite and desert lake brines
Lithium compounds are first converted to lithium chloride (LiCl). After that, an electric current is passed through molted (melted) lithium chloride
Lithium is also obtained from saltwater. As saltwater evaporates, solids are left behind. These solids include sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), and lithium chloride (LiCl).
A small amount of lithium carbonate added to a glass or ceramic will make the material stronger. Atomic Structure: Lithium Hydrogen Discovery: In 1776, Hydrogen was discovered by Henry Cavendish in London, England 3 Electrons
3 Protons
4 Neutrons
1s2 2s1

Mass: 6.94 Atomic Structure: 1 Electrons
1 Protons
0 Neutrons
1s1

Mass: 1.01 How to Obtain Hydrogen: Hydrogen is found in mines, oil, and gas wells
It is the most abundant element in the world.
The easiest way to extract hydrogen is from water; however, this method is very costly. It is difficult to seperate water molecules because so much energy is required.
Also, Hydrogen can be produced when steam is passed over hot charcoal.
It can also be made by the reaction between carbon monoxide (CO) and steam. Physical Properties: Colorless, Tasteless
Diatomic- Gas
The density of Hydrogen is the lowest of any chemical element, 0.08999 grams per liter
Melting Point- -259.14 °C ( -434.45203 °F)
Boiling Point- -252.87 °C ( -423.166 °F)
Slightly soluble in water, alcohol Chemical Properties: Hydrogen burns in air to produce water.
Ionization Energy- 1st (1312 kJ mol) ; 2nd ( kJ mol)
Electronegativity according to Pauling : 2.1
Hydrogen does not usually react with other chemicals at room temperature; however, at a normal temperature hydrogen is not a very reactive substance
Hydrogen atoms fused with another atom produce acids because the covalent bond between one hydrogen atoms and another atom is weak and breaks easily.
•Hydrogen also forms ionic bonds with some metals, creating a compound called a hydride Uses of Hydrogen: One of the most important uses of hydrogen is ammonia. Ammonia is made by combining hydrogen and nitrogen at high pressure and temperature. Ammonia is used in making many products, the most important of which is fertilizer. Since hydrogen is flammable in air, it is used as fuel in rockets. Combinig liquid hydrogen with liquid oxygen can make an explosive mixture.
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