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The Road to WWII
Transcript of The Road to WWII
CRISIS Consequences Rebellions/Revolutions Changes in Behavior & Ideas Rise of New Political Parties Isolationism Migration & Immigration GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY US failure to join the league hurts the US rep in LA Harding and Coolidge 1924 leave Dominican Republic 1925 leave Nicaragua but return in '26 '26 Mexico moves left and toward the US Hoover begins goodwill tour of the republics FDR reduces the Hawley-Smoot Tariff through the Reciprocal Trade Agreeements 1933 Pan-American Conference = nonintervention 1934 Marines leave Haiti and the Platt Amendment is ended '36 increased Panamian involvement in Canal zone Asia Policy Lansing-Ishi Agreement Nov. 1917 Japan presents 21 Demands to the US Japan promises to respect the Open Door and China's territorial integrity US recognizes Japan's "special rights" Japan annexes Manchuria 1919 US/UK/Japan Naval Race begins Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934 Independence for the Philippines in 1946 Washington Naval Conference Nov. 1921 Charles Evans Hughes Five Power Naval Treaty 5-5-3 naval breakdown with the UK/US; France & Itlay at 1:7 ratio US and UK agree not to fortify Pacific naval bases 10 year naval holiday (but no limits on destroyers, subs or on airpower) Four Power Naval Treaty US/UK/Japan/France agree to respect each other in the Pacific Anglo-Japanese Alliance dissolved Results US looks weak US junks 30 new battleships Removes checks on Japanese growth Temporay stop to naval race Geneva Conference 1927 1931 Attempt to fix the Washington Conference France and Italy decline US and Japan can't agree to limit small crafts 51 Nation Disarmament Conference Hoover proposes to disavow all offensive but not defensive weapons Hitler was already on the rise to power Japan never signs Japan had captured all of Manchuria and attacked Shanghai during the actual conference Kellogg-Briand Pact Outlaws war in 1928 62 countries Allowed defensive war and there was no enforcement US Senate approves 85 to 1 London Conference 1933 Coordinate Multinational response to the Great Depression Exchange Rate Stabilization Key to Global Economic Recovery Gold Standard FDR extreme nationalism reflects the consequences of the US withdrawl Hitler National Socialist German Wrkers Party leader in 1921 Beer Hall Putsch 8 Nov. 1923 Chancellor 1933 Dictator 1934 Third Reich 1936 Rome-Berlin Axis Isolationism Dr. New Deal dead in 1938 Fair Labor Act last ND act Unemployment still at 17% in '38 Isolationism the natural state for the US 70,000 US Dead for no European Growth the Nye Committee attempts to show that the municions industry was responsible for WWI FDR kills the Treaty of Versailles Reduces the size of the Army Johnson Debt Default Act of '34: no more loans till paid off Neuatrality Act of '35, '36 & '37 when the president declared a war existed no American could sail on a belligerent ship, sell or transport munitions or make loans: insulate the US from Europe and Asia Ethiopia 1935 League could have stopped Italy if they embargo oil US keeps shipping oil Spanish Civil War '36 to '39 Rebels lef by Franco against leftist republican govt. in Madrid Franco aided by Mussolini and Hitler; limitedly by Stalin US recognizes Franco Lincoln Brigade 1938 FDR finally asks for a billion dollars to rebuild the US Navy 1937 Japan beings invasion of China after explosion at the Marco Polo Bridge No War = No Neutrality Acts Japan conts. to buy war supplies in the US Quarantine Speech of '37 Quarantine agressors through positive endeavors aka economic embargos FDR backs away from actual enforcement Panay Incident '37 Japanese aviators sank the Panay in the Yangtze River killed two Japan apologizes Japan encouraged to expand 2 18 x 14 flags Ludlow Amendment '38 National Referendum on war Narrowly defeated 209-198 March '38 occupies Austria Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia September '39 Munich Conference Appeasement Policy US Accepts Munich Pact Hitler-Stalin Pact UK/France had been asking for a mutual defense Treaty Hitler immediately calls for WWI land to be returned from Poland Sept. 1, 1939 Hitler and Stalin incade Poland Britain and France declare war Poland falls in 3 weeks FDR calls in War and invokes the Neutrality Acts Neutrality Act of '39 cash and carry UK/Frnech control of the Atlantic Phony War Poland Falls but then what? USSR attacks Finland for strategic buffer zone US gives Finland 30 million loan Finland Falls April '40 Hitler takes Denmark and Norway May '40 Belgium and the Netherlands Falls France Falls in six weeks British Evacuation of Dunkirk Chamberlain falls and Churchill elected If UK falls Europe is done FDR asks Congress to build an airforce and two ocean navy 37 billion Appropriated More than the cost of WWI and five times the size of the annual New Deal budget Peacetime draft approved; Sept '40 1.2 million troops and 800,000 reserves Havana Cpnference: '40 Monroe Doctrine becomes multilateral doctrine (21 countries) Battle of Britain August '40 Royal Navy saves Britain from German Invasion Fotress America or extend aid? America First Committee Sept. 2, '40 FDR gives UK 51 old destroyers and the US gets 9 naval bases Lend Lease Act March '41 ($50 billion in the end) Factories gear up for all out war production Nine Power Treaty Respect the Territorial Integrity of China America First Mussolini National Facist Party Prime Minister '22 Anschluss