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Marie Wachter

on 5 February 2015

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Transcript of Humanities

English 101
General Writing Conventions of the Humanities
Rhetorical Situations
in the Humanities

First, history writers/historians gather data

Through their writing, they present facts, provide criticism and analysis, interpret the data they gathered, and provide a conclusion

History writing has a strong thesis in the introduction H1

Body of the paper addresses the different aspects of the thesis H1

It is important for history writers to remain objective in their writing and avoid any bias H1

History writing uses standard English conventions
keep the past tense
Moderate use of the passive voice H3

Cited using Chicago style H3
Foreign Language
Author - Educators
Purpose - To improve teaching environments for foreign language classes/students
Audience - Other educators, students
Topic - Data, methods, and improvements
Types of Writing and Research
The "Things" You Should Know!
Foreign Language
The humanities covers a BROAD expanse of topics! Ranging from religion all the way over to law, humanities even dabbles in foreign languages and design.
Documents use 3rd person narrative in order to analyze data without bias. FL1
Past- Description and data analysis.
Future - possible improvements. FL2
Audience - other educators (teaching methods)
Intro - Ideas and purpose
Body - data, analysis, and Improvements
Conclusion - summary

APA format [FL2]
We've done some digging and found the
most basic
information you should know when it comes to the academic writings of these studies....
author's name
is presented by: First Middle Last (the first time) and referred to by only their last name after the initial introduction

1st Person
writing is seen as weak. Own your work!

When writing with
Decimals are left in numerical form
Numbers with three or less words can be spelled out

is not acceptable, bruh.

Don't get too
Past Tense: used for history
Present Tense: current events, arts, literature
All of these follow MLA guidelines!
Historians look at a combination of primary sources (any text/document/object from the past) and secondary sources (books and papers from other historians) to write their own material H2
They are constantly producing more secondary sources H2
These include textbooks, critical essays, research papers, other books H3
If they were to keep a journal of their life or documents from their time, they would be forming a collection of primary sources H2
Foreign Language
"Artsy" Design
The common publications of foreign language field consists of answering questions with analysis based on data
The data are either from researches conducted by themselves, or ones from other people's work. [FL1]
Easy diction, publication relies heavily on numerical and graphical data to support. [FL2]
"Factual" Design
Religion is one of the most diverse branches of the humanities
Writers in the religion often use differing styles and writing methods
Researchers in religion can write in philosophical, literary, historical, psychological, culture studies styles, and etc.
Many authors in religion use a philosophical approach to writing. They do this by:
conducting specific research questions
using eloquent language
having advanced styles of argument
Scholars in the field of religion often write in MLA or Chicago style

If you were to search for common publications in the Humanities, you would stumble upon TONS of journals (scholarly, of course!). However, this is their largest source of published material. Here are a few examples:

Author- Professors, Pastors, Scholars, Historians
Audience- Students, Pastors, Scholars, Historians, almost anyone who has an interest in religion
Topic- Religion covers a very broad range of topics. Some examples are:
Islamic Studies
Women's Studies in Religion

Purpose- To ask questions about certain ideas and beliefs and to analyze historical (Holy) books

MLA format is used in print documents

Documents favor a more "conversational" tone due to the effect of personal opinion- even though they are written by scholars

References cited

Electrical Design
Bridge Design
Industrial/ Product Design
Architectural Design
"To distinguish this journal from existing design journals, we have identified two main focuses of research for the International Journal of Design:
social-cultural impacts on design
, and
relevance to design practice
. The journal aims to provide an international forum for exchange of ideas and findings from researchers across different cultures, by encouraging research on the impact of cultural factors on design theory and practice."
Graduate Students- research
Environmental Scientists

When writing about literature:
Use formal, academic diction
Therefore, write in 3rd person- 1st and 2nd person are too informal
Do not write about a literary text in the past tense
Literary works are considered to exist in the present tense
Write in the "literary present"
View your audience as your instructor and the fellow students in your class
Avoid summarizing the plot for them
Into paragraph, body paragraphs, conclusion
Intro includes thesis
Body paragraphs include textual evidence
Conclusion tie together essay’s argument and ideas [L1]
Typically, these articles are written as subject-specific. They are peer-reviewed and directed toward other scholars and researchers in their field.
International Journal of Design [1D]
The Journal of Design Research
The International Journal for Design Research in Engineering, Architecture, Products and Systems
Typically, these articles are written as subject-specific. They are peer-reviewed and directed toward other scholars and researchers in their field.
This is not light reading for the average Joe. It requires interest and understanding of the subject area.
Papers published in religion can scope a wide range of specifications
Publications often consist of:
analysis of text such as research papers
journal articles
primary source analysis's
Scholars in religion often reflect upon primary sources such as Holy books and secondary sources written by other academics
There is a wide range of publication methods
Literary magazines, books, journals, papers, essays, databases
Different pieces get published in different methods based on who they are written for
Scholarly articles may be in journals, databases, or books
Casual discussions may be found in magazines or as online essays
Academic pieces will be presented primarily as essays and papers
All will primarily be cited using MLA [L2]
Author: Educators, peers
Purpose: to discuss literary topics and works
Audience: teachers, students, academics
Topic: People look into literary works and techniques to evaluate and discuss them. They write to discuss themes present in ancient as well as modern works and evaluate literary tools utilized. [L1]

Authors are typically
topics such as:
itself is such a general word, we need to understand what the humanities are studying, and how researchers respond and contribute to the
ongoing conversation
Scholars write to analyze the contributions of "texts, artifacts, and other ways in which people create meaning and value" (Miller-Cochran, Rodrigo. 13)
Historians write text books, analyze the work of other historians, come up with new questions and try to answer them H3
Other historians, students, other people who may be curious
There are a few reasons for academic writing in the Humanities:
Analytical Writing
The breaking down and reconstructing of information or work so that another reader might better understand it.
Analytical writing focuses on the how? and why?" of a text

Interpretive Writing
The study of a work's details and their meaning. Delving into the understanding of significant symbolism or
"What's the significance of the green light on Daisy's dock?"
"What are the historical events leading to the posting of the Ninety-Five Theses?"
Historians look at old artifacts including items and texts to formulate questions and answer other questions. They look at old societies and try to determine why and how things happened/how events affected people and society H2
Publications in the humanities are a way for scholars to interpret information they have gathered through studying artifacts and previous works and present it in a way that explains the meaning and significance
Their interpretations relate to how humans experience the world around them
Areas of research include studies from the following:
-Religious studies
Works Cited
Miller-Cochran, Susan K., and Rochelle L. Rodrigo.
The Wadsworth Guide to Research, Second Edition
. Boston, MA. Wadsworth Cengage. 2009. Print.

Rhetoric and Composition/ Writing in the Humanities
. WikiBooks. Web. 29 Jan. 2015 http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Rhetoric_and_Composition/Writing_in_the_Humanities

[3] "What Are the Humanities?" Oklahoma Humanities Council- Who Are We? Oklahoma Humanities Council, n.d. Web. 02 Feb. 2015.

Chen, Lin Lin. "International Journal of Design: A Step Forward." International Journal of Design. International Journal of Design, 2007. Web. 27 Jan. 2015.

Miller-Cochran, Susan K., and Rochelle L. Rodrigo. The Wadsworth Guide to Research, Second Edition. Boston, MA. Wadsworth Cengage. 2009. Print.

Thompson, Gregory, and Katie Harrison. "Language Use in the Foreign Language Classroom." Foreign Language Annals 47.2 (2014): 321-37. The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Inc. Web. 30 Jan. 2015.

Murray, Bokyung. "Students' Language Learning Strategy Use and Achievement in the Korean as a Foreign Language Classroom." Foreign Language Annals 43.4 (2010): 624-34. The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Inc. Web. 30 Jan. 2015.

Henkle, Glen. "Important Points of Historical Writing." Important Points of Historical Writing. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Jan. 2015.

"History." The Writing Center History Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Jan. 2015.

Mcintyre, Sheila, Clifford Backman, Barbara Diefendorf, James McCann, and Diana Wylie. "Department of History Writing Guide." (n.d.): n. pag. Boston University. Web. 27 Jan. 2015.
"Academics." College of The Holy Cross. College of The Holy Cross, 2015. Web. 03 Feb. 2015.
Conventions for Writing a Literary Analysis Paper. Newton PA: Bucks County Community College, 2014. PDF.
Sleeper, Stephanie. "Writing in Religion." CGU. Claremont Graduate University, n.d. Web. 04 Feb. 2015.
The Humanities cover a wide range of topics. Therefore the audience is not confined to one specific people group

From what we have gathered by exploring the different branches of the Humanities there is a lot of overlap!

Examples include :
Students [1]
MLA and Chicago Style
Again, because the Humanities covers so many different areas, scholars are offered a host of various topics to research and write about. Major topics include: history, law, literature, and foreign language.... just think about it! There are entire majors and colleges devoted to these subjects!
: all of our subcategories offer different "topics" for their writings, but all end in
Overall Purpose
"The humanities are a vehicle to understanding the human experience—the diverse history, traditions, and cultures of the world. It is only through this quest for understanding that we cultivate the wisdom and vision that democracy demands." -Oklahoma Humanities Council [3]
The purpose of academic writing and research in the humanities is to
in an age old conversation,
works of human production and their significance to the ongoing events around us.
Papers are not formatted in a "heading and subcategory" order. They tend to follow a chronological
progression of the symbolism
used in the work, and how it is interpreted.
The scholarly articles produced in the design spectrum greatly parallel the conventions of the humanities in general. They are written in a conversational format (
the analogy of joining a conversation is common
). They also use a combination of scholarly opinion and knowledge to interpret the artifacts at hand.
core values
of the humanities are critical thinking, clear communication, and careful analysis. These values are applied to help the individual lead a meaningful and fulfilling life. [L2]
MLA includes:
Name of author
Title of text
Publication info
Publisher's name, place of publication, copyright date
Medium published in
Print, Web, CD, etc.
Periods separate major information
Abbreviations used when information not provided
Chicago includes:
Name of author
Title of resource
Publication info
Publisher's name, city of publication, copyright date
Periods also used to separate major information [1]

Class Activity
1. Look at ink blots
2. Interpret what you see
3. Discuss interpretations and provide evidence to support
Full transcript