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Animalia Kingdom

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Kirsten S

on 12 January 2013

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Transcript of Animalia Kingdom

Animalia Kingdom Kirsten Strudwick Ctenophora Cnidaria Porifera Placozoa Symplasma -spend their lives anchored to a rock or ocean bottom
-Filter-feeders Asexual Gemmules- a specialized mass of cells are released by the parent. Each of this cells has the potential to become a new organism. Regeneration- when an organism loses a part of itself, that piece may grow into a completely new organism. Parthenogenesis- an unfertilized egg may grow into an individual Budding- the offspring grows out of the body of the parent. A small bud appears on the parent’s body. The bud gets larger and detaches itself from the parent, becoming a new organism. Fragmentation- the parent’s body breaks into pieces. Each piece later becomes a new organism. Polyembryony- A single egg develops into two or more different organisms. Reproduction Calcarea -no jelly-like substance between the cells
-supporting skeleton is composed of chalk spicules Demospongiae -jelly-like substance between the cells
-Skeleton is composed of spicules of silica,
spongin, or a combination of both Sclerospongiae -internal mass of spicules and spongin fibers
fill the sponges internally
-thin veneer of calcerous, skeletal mass cover
the sponge externally -no jelly-like substance between the cells
-skeleton is composed of spicules of silica
-Sometimes grouped together with porifera -Only 1 species: Trichoplax adhaerens
-amoeboid in form and covered in flagella
-three cell layers and only four different kinds of cells
-Reproduces asexually -internal sac for digestion
-only one opening
-body consists of 3 layers(epidermis, mesoglea, gastrodermis)
-radially symmetrical
-Have specialized cells called Cnidocytes
-have tentacles around the rim of their their mouth Hydrozoa -small, inconspicuous creatures
-much of the marine growth on rocks
and shells is produced by hydroid polyps. Scyphozoa -medusa stage is dominant
-lack a velum
-4 oral arms surrounding the mouth Cubozoa -square-shaped bell, four bunches of
tentacles, and well-developed eyes Anthozoa -no medusa phase
-digestive cavity of the polyp is divided by sheets of tissue bearing stinging cells on their edges. -two layers of cells, but they do not exist as either polyps or medusa
-swim by means of cilia
-lack stinging cells but have colloblasts instead Platyhelminthes -unsegmented, bilaterally symmetrical worms
-lack a respiratory or circulatory system Turbellaria -Aquatic
-Live in sand or mud, under stones
and shells or on seaweed Trematoda -parasites
-have one of two suckers Cestoda -parasites
-long, flat bodies made of segments called proglottids
-have hooks or suckers Orthonectida -wormlike parasites of marine invertebrates
-there are males and females Gnathostomulida -minute, transparent, worm-like animals
-head bears complex jaws and long cilia
-body is covered with short cilia by which they move -aquatic worm like animals
-no internal cavity
-no circulatory system Gastrotricha Nematoda -long bodies, pointed at each end, covered by a thick horny layer, or cuticle
-There are parasitic species and species which live in soil, fresh water and the sea. Nematomorpha -parasitic when juvenile but free living when adult
-external cuticle without cilia Kinorhyncha -aquatic worms
-have spines on their head and a segmented body Loricifera -found living in the interstitial space between marine gravel Priapula -carnivorous marine worm
-the sexes are separate Rotifera -ring of thread-like cilia round the mouth
provides the propulsion for swimming
-Cilia also create water currents which
convey food to the animal
-Sexual reproduction Acanthocephela -Parasitic
-attach themselves to the host by
means of a proboscis with curved spines Onychophora -live in the tropics and southern temperate regions
-soft outer covering, a pair of short legs on each trunk segment and a pair of long antennae Pentastoma -found in the lungs and nasal passages of vertebrates
-covered by a thick cuticle
-no circulatory or respiratory systems Tardigrada -found in fresh waters and on the sea shore
-four pairs of short legs
-feed by sucking the sap from plant cells Sipuncula -well-developed body cavity
-forepart of the body can be tucked
into the plumper part immediately behind
-Sexual reproduction Echiuria -body lacks segmentation
-have an extendible proboscis
-small hooks at their posterior end Annelida -segmented bodies
-body walls are made of circular muscle fibers surrounded by a moist cuticle Polychaeta -numerous bristles growing from appendages called parapodia Oligochaeta -few bristles
-Lack parapodia
-complex reproductive system Hirudinea -Neither bristles nor parapodia
-Suckers at both ends of the body with
which to cling to their hosts Nemertea -marine worms that live in tubes
-no digestive tract
-separate sexes Entoprocta -small, transparent, sessile animals
-external skeleton supports and
protects the body Cycliophora -suspension feeders
-complex life cycle that alternates between
sexual and asexual phases Brachiopoda -live in the oceans
-filter feeders
-collect food particles on a ciliated organ called the lophophore
-have a pedicle to help them burrow Mollusca -most have a muscular foot
-have a shell usually composed of
calcium carbonate Chaetodermomorpha -shell-less vermiform mollusks
-no foot present and the mantle covers the entire body Neomeniomorpha -shell is absent, and they have a rudimentary mantle cavity
-"pedal groove“ instead of foot Polyplacophora -lack both tentacles and eyes
-broad, flat foot Monoplacophora -two sides of the body are symmetrical
-Have kidneys and gills Gastropoda -tentacles and eyes
-body is not symmetrical
-single shell Bivalvia -rounded, oval or elongated shells
-mantle divided into two lobes
-large gills Scaphopoda -tubular shells
-feet adapted for burrowing
-long, thin projections growing
from the head Cephalopoda -some have a vey efficient nervous system
-two sides of the body are symmetrical Bryozoa -possess a lophophore
-Ciliated tentacles round the mouth
-reproduction is both asexual and sexual Chaetognatha -elongated body is divided into a head with eyes and horny teeth, a trunk and a tail
-fins on the side and tail. Hemichordata -marine worm like animals
-Body divided into three sections, a proboscis, a collar and a trunk
-partially open circulatory system. Enteropneusta -covered with cilia as well as glands that
secrete mucus
-have pharyngeal gill pores, partially
neurulated dorsal cord and a stomochord Pterobranchia -collar bears a number of branched arms,
carrying cillia which collect planktonic food.
-Some live in colonies Echinodermata -internal skeleton
-pentaradial form has a central disk
-have a water vascular system Asteroidea -Up to 40 arms
-chalky plates buried in the skin
-usually carnivorous
-Can regenerate lost limbs Ophiuroidea -long, flexible arms
-move by by wriggling their arms Echinoidea -no arms
-chalky plates in the skin form a complete shell
-move by means of tube-feet Holothuroidea -no arms
-tube-feet near the mouth are
adapted as tentacles; the rest have
suckers and are used to move Crinoidea -mouth on the upper side of the body
-those in deep seas are permanently
attached to a stalk
-those in shallower water become
detached from the stalk when adult and
swim by waving their branched arms Chordata -possess a a notochord, a hollow dorsal
nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle,
and a post-anal tail for at least some period
of their life cycles Arthropoda -segmented bodies
-exoskeleton made up primarily of chitin
-open circulatory system Crustacea -two pairs of antennae, a pair of mandibles, a pair of compound eyes (usually on stalks), and two pairs of maxillae on their heads
-pair of appendages on each body segment Chelicerata -lack antennae
-possess a pair of chelicerae and a pair of pedipalps Hexapoda -three pairs of legs
-bodies are divided into an anterior head, thorax, and posterior abdomen Myriapoda -have a single pair of antennae
-mouthparts lie on the underside of the head
-breathe through spiracles Cephalochordata -notochord that persists throughout life
-elongated bodies
-marine animals Urochordata -marine animals
-filter feeders
-no limbs or brain Craniata -have a head, brain, skull and eyes Myxini -lack a vertebral column -have a vertebral column Vertebrata Cephalaspidomorphi -don't have a jaw Gnathostomata -have a jaw Chondrichthyes -have no bones Euteleostomi -have bones Mammalia Osteichthyes Amphibia Reptilia Aves Interesting Facts
Live in colonies ruled by a “Queen”
The Queen can prevent other females from breeding
Spend their whole life underground unless there’s an emergency (E.g. rainfall floods the tunnels)
They work in teams to dig tunnels
Their large incisors help them dig Habitat
Thorn-tree savannah of East Africa(hot, arid. Naked mole rats dig burrows to escape the heat) Naked Mole Rat
(Heterocephalus glaber) Interesting Facts
The platypus is one of the only mammals to lay eggs (echidnas also lay eggs)
Has no nipples so the young nudge their mother’s flanks to get milk to come from her ducts
Males have spurs on their hind claws that can deliver venom Habitat
Eastern Australia and Tasmania
Year round water with soft, muddy banks
Dig burrows with two entrances, one below water and one above Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus) Interesting Facts
Was kept by Ancient Egyptians to catch rats
Has cat-like eyes that allow it to see well in the dark
Is an excellent climber and uses its tail for balance Habitat
Sub-Saharan Africa
Prefers areas with lots of vegetation near water Large Spotted Genet
(Genetta tigrina) Interesting Facts
Will eat almost anything it can fit into its beak
Also swallows grit to aid in digestion
Was almost the U.S.A’s national bird
From groups called a brood
Nearly went extinct in the 1940s due to overhunting. Their numbers have risen since then. Habitat
Open woodland and forests with scattered clearings Wild Turkey
(Meleagris gallopavo) Interesting Facts
Lack a gallbladder and an oil gland for preening
Named for Queen Victoria
Travels in small groups
Stay near their food source
Can immerse its bill in water and swallow without raising its head Habitat
Lush rainforests, lowland swamps, sago palm forests
Nest near rivers or swamps among the dense vegetation Victoria Crowned Pigeon
(Goura victoria) Interesting Facts
To cool itself down, it basks in the sun, opens its mouth or goes into the water
Can survive a year without eating
If the eggs are incubated below 84 degrees Fahrenheit, all the young will be female
When the young are ready to come out of their eggs, they make a chirping noise
Once they’re hatched, the mother will take them in her mouth and bring them to the water
With its prey clamped firmly in its jaws, the crocodile spins around in the water to break off chunks of flesh
In order for the food to reach its stomach, the crocodile must tilt its head back Habitat
Africa, south of the Sahara or along the Nile River
Also found in Madagascar
Lives near water Nile Crocodile
(Crocodylus niloticus) Interesting Facts
Spends 90% of its time in trees
Can run on its hind legs and will also hop when threatened
Will puff out its frill when threatened to try to frighten away predators
Tail is used for balance and to fight off predators Habitat
Northern Australia and southern New Guinea
Tropical savannah woodlands Frilled Lizard
(Chlamydosaurus kingii) Interesting Facts
Kills its prey with extremely potent venom
Only the female bites humans and they only do this if provoked
The chance of dying from a black widow’s bite is about the same as the chance of dying by being struck by lightning
Males are much smaller than females
Males deposit a drop of sperm in a small web. They then pick up this web and go to search for a mate. They tap on a female’s web and, if the female is receptive, place the sperm inside her sexual organ
The males usually manage to escape from the female after mating Habitat
Southern U.S.A, Mexico, Panama
Scrubland or fields
Makes its web close to the ground
Will sometimes construct its web near buildings and in outhouses Black Widow Spider
(Latrodectus mactans) Interesting Facts
Doesn’t have any sweat glands so it stays near water so it can cool off
Rhino lips are prehensile
Horns are used for fighting and sometimes for hooking tree branches closer to the rhino’s mouth so they can eat the leaves
During courtship, the male and female will often fight Habitat
African scrubland
Close to water Black Rhinoceros
(Diceros bicornis) Interesting Facts
Molt their fur every year
Will swallow small rocks to help break down food
Their eyes are covered by a transparent film to allow it to see clearly underwater
Very playful and are easily trained
Use their front flippers to propel themselves through the water
Their whiskers help them pick up underwater vibrations of prey Habitat
Coastal waters from California to Mexico and sometimes as far north as Vancouver
During breeding season (spring and early summer), they come to land California Sea Lion
(Zalophus californianus) Interesting Facts
The only penguin species that breeds in Africa
They mate for life
During courtship, the male will dance around the female and they will embrace each other with their bills interlocked
They use their bills to dig burrows in the ground for nests
They have sweat glands above their eyes Habitat
Coast and islands of Southern Africa and Namibia
Spend most of their time at sea but come to land to breed African Penguin
(Spheniscus demersus) Interesting Facts
The only member of the Genus Cuon
Have fewer molars and more teats than the animals from the Genus Canis
In a pack, they will chase their prey until it is exhausted and then kill it
They have been known to attack tigers if there’s competition for food
They are very good jumpers Habitat
Most live in India
Hilly or mountainous regions, forests, grasslands or open plains Dhole
(Cuon alpinus) Interesting Facts
They have a pseudo-thumb on each forepaw
mark their territory with a pungent, oily fluid and with a clear fluid that is released from the pores on the base of their feet
Their tail is used for balance and also as a pillow
Cubs are born fully covered in fur Habitat
Nepal, India, Bhutan, northern Myanmar and parts of China
Temperate mountain forests and bamboo forests Red Panda
(Ailurus fulgens) Interesting Facts
An amphibian that doesn’t metamorphose (This is called neoteny)
During breeding, the male will drop packets of sperm and lead the female over them
The eggs have a gelatinous coat so that they will stick to something (usually plants or twigs)
Can re-grow lost body parts Habitat
Lake Xochimilco in Mexico Axolotl
(Ambystoma mexicanum) Interesting Facts
Will eat other lionfish if they can’t find other food
They can swallow fish almost as large as themselves
The female will release her eggs and the male will fertilize them before they float off
They’re the most venomous fish in the ocean Habitat
Tropical reefs, underwater cliffs and crevices Lionfish
(Pterois volitans) Interesting Facts
They use their prehensile tails to attach themselves to sea grass
Their eyes can move independently of one another
They have no teeth and no stomach
They swallow their prey whole and it passes quickly through their digestive system
The males are the ones to become pregnant
They can change their colour to match their surroundings Habitat
Found in the water around southeastern Australia and New Zealand
Prefer harbours or sheltered coastal bays Pot-Bellied Seahorse
(Hippocampus abdominalis) Interesting Facts
Fastest land animal though it can’t go its top speed for very long
It is specialized for speed: narrow body, long legs, flexible spine, powerful heart and lungs, enlarged nostrils, oversized liver and strong arteries
Its tail helps to balance while running
Some males will live in small groups Habitat
Parts of eastern, central and southwestern Africa
Savannah Cheetah
(Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) Interesting Facts
Largest hyena species
Hyena packs (or clans) can sometimes have up to 100 members
Females are dominant over males
Females stay in the same clan for their whole life but males will travel to other clans
They have very strong jaws with which they can chew up bones Habitat
Africa, south of the Sahara
Grasslands and flat, open terrain Spotted Hyena
(Crocuta crocuta) Interesting Facts
Can walk on their hind legs for a few steps
Males are much larger and heavier than females
They only hunt young, sick or aging animals Habitat
North America, Europe, northern Asia and Japan
Mountainous regions with forests and streams Grizzly Bear
(Ursus arctos horribilis ) Interesting Facts
Have no scales on their body and also lack a dorsal fin
Stun their prey with electric shocks
Electricity comes from gland cells in the skin
The electric shocks also help them get around, making up for their poor eyesight Habitat
African streams and rivers, mostly the Nile River
Usually found among rocks and roots Electric Catfish
(Malapterurus electricus) Interesting Facts
Each ear can be moved independently and fold back to keep out dirt when the aardvark is digging
Females usually stay in one place but the males will wander
It has a foot long tongue which it uses to eat insects
They’re very good diggers Habitat
Sub-Saharan Africa
Grassy plains, woodland, savannah Aardvark
(Orycteropus afer) Interesting Facts
When a mare is in heat, a stallion will cover her urine and feces with his own to prevent other stallions from finding out about her condition
They form groups comprised of one stallion, a few mares and their foals
If threatened, the zebras will bunch together, each facing outwards. The stallion will protect all members of its herd and will kick the predators if he has to
Young zebras will leave their family herd when they become sexually mature Habitat
Southern and Eastern Africa
Grassland and savannah Plains Zebra
(Equus burchelli) Interesting Facts
Large ears help it keep cool by dissipating heat
Has excellent hearing, allowing it to find prey hiding underground
Its sandy coloured coat help it to camouflage
Paws have fury soles to protect it from the burning sand and to help it run on the sand
Curls its tongue to stop saliva from escaping its mouth
Shares a burrow with a group of other fennec foxes
On cold nights, the fox fluffs up its tail and wraps it around its feet to prevent heat loss Habitat
Desert regions of North Africa and the Middle East Fennec Fox
(Fennecus zerda) Interesting Facts
Largest bird
Can’t fly but can run very fast
When threatened, an incubating ostrich will lay her neck and head flat on the ground
During courtship, the male will bend down, sway his neck up and down, and raise each wing in turn
Will swallow small stones and grit to aid in digestion
Only has two toes Habitat
Parts of Africa
Savannah and semi-desert regions Ostrich
(Struthio camelus) Interesting Facts
The largest snake
Spends most of its time swimming
Will constrict its prey or drag it into the water to drown
Has poor eyesight and hearing but is extremely sensitive to vibrations Habitat
Tropical South America
Lives by fresh water rivers, surrounded by lots of vegetation Green Anaconda
(Eunectes murinus) Interesting Facts
They’re all female
Reproduce asexually, though they sometimes perform sexual acts( known as mock mating)
The young are basically clones of the mother
They will drop part of their tail in order to flee from predators Habitat
Southwestern United States and northern Mexico
Desert and semi-desert grasslands Desert Grassland Whiptail Lizards
(Aspidoscelis uniparens) Interesting Facts
No backbone, brain or heart
Only one opening (Mouth and anus)
Males release sperm through their opening and it drifts into the female’s opening
Use their tentacles to stun prey
The size of the jellyfish depends on how much food is available Lifecycle Habitat
Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans
Shallow and brackish waters Moon Jellyfish
(Aurelia aurita) Interesting Facts
Males are usually eaten after mating
They glow under ultra-violet light
Their tails contain venom
Largest species of scorpion in North America Habitat
Southwestern United States
Desert Desert Hairy Scorpion
(Hadrurus arizonensis) Interesting Facts
They have a pedal disk that allows them to slowly move around
When the tide is out, the anemone will fold in on itself
There are both males and females but they reproduce asexually
They have hairs on their tentacles that, when touched, inject poison into whatever touched it Habitat
Northern Pacific Ocean
Inter-tidal zone and tidal pools Aggregate anemone
(Anthopleura elegantissima) Sexual Snakes -when they're ready to mate, females release pheromones
-a male will follow her scent and court her
-if the female is willing, she lifts her tail
-the male wraps his tail around hers and their cloaca meet
-the male will insert his sex organs into the female's cloaca and release his sperm Wolves -usually only the alphas will mate
-the female will make playful advances toward the male
-She will push her rump against the male's and curl her tail to the side
-Once the male catches on, he will mount her Peafowl -the peacock puts on a show for the peahen, showing off his tail feathers while making loud mating calls
-if the peahen is willing, the peacock will mount her and deposit his sperm in her sexual organ Wolf Life Cycle Pup Juvenile Adult Peafowl Life Cycle Skin- some animals breath through their skin. The skin is covered in a mucus that dissolves oxygen and lets it pass into the blood stream.
Gills- Used by aquatic animals. Force the water and oxygen to go in opposite directions.
Spiracles- Leads to the trachea which goes throughout the animal’s body. Oxygen goes into the spiracles and carbon dioxide comes out
Lungs- have a moist respiratory surface. Air comes into contact with the lung’s surface and the circulatory system brings the respiratory gases to the body’s cells. Gas exchange is essential for animals to live. They need to take in oxygen or else they would die. Gas Exchange Direct Diffusion- oxygen diffuses into the cells and carbon dioxide is diffused out
Open Transport- organs are bathed directly with oxygen and other nutrients
Closed Transport- blood stays within vessels. It’s pumped throughout the body by a heart. Circulation Animals have drastically changed the world. Humans have destroyed and built so many things in just a short while. The world today is so much different from even 100 hundred years ago.
Animal droppings also help fertilize plants and some animals help pollinate. Impact Multicellular
Animal cells lack a cell wall Animals The digestion system varies for
different animals. Here are a couple of
examples. Digestion Teeth and enzymes in the mouth help break down food
Food goes into the stomach where it is broken down into chyme
Chyme enters the intestines, where it’s broken down even more and nutrients are absorbed
Leaves the body as feces Human Digestion Digestion starts in the mouth
Food goes into the crop (storage area)
Enters the gizzard then the stomach
In the stomach, the nutrients are absorbed and transported throughout the body
Waste exits the body through the anus Grasshopper Digestion My Favourite Animals Zed Cairo Keiser Boots
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