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The Rock Cycle

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by

Honey Davidge

on 6 January 2014

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Transcript of The Rock Cycle

The Rock Cycle
igneous rock
Igneous rock forms when molten rock cools and becomes solid.
Igneous rock can be made inside the earth or on the outside.
intrusive igneous rock - magma that cools inside the earth
extrusive igneous rock - lava that cools on Earth's surface
what are rocks?
most rocks are made of minerals
a rock only has two of the properties that minerals have:
1. naturally formed
2. a solid
The rock cycle is a set of natural processes that form, change, break down, and re-form rocks.

There is no order in which a rock will move through the cycle.

The rock cycle has no beginning or end.
there are three types of rocks:
igneous rock
sedimentary rock
metamorphic rock
textures of igneous rock
Texture means the size of the rock's mineral crystals.

rocks that form fast have small crystal size
- Earth's surface is cooler than the interior, therefore the cool temperatures cool the lava quickly

rocks that form slow have large crystals
-Earth's inside is hot, those high temperatures allow the rocks to cool slowly
viscosity is the ability of a fluid to flow

high viscosity (low silica) = good flow
ex. milk, thin lava

low viscosity( high silica) = bad flow
ex. pudding, thick lava

the amount of silica determines viscosity
viscosity of igneous rocks
COMPACTION occurs when pieces of older rock, plants, and other material (sediments) get pressed together.

CEMENTATION happens when layers of sediment build up and press on the lower layers.

The result is a sedimentary rock!
sedimentary rock
coal- forms from plant material
limestone- forms from shells/ bones of animals
Types of Sedimentary Rocks
the oldest layer is always on the bottom

fossils are found in sedimentary rocks

fossils of fish=water was there

fossils of plants=land

if the rock contains large particles it means the wind/water was moving fast, as it slowed the largest particles were dropped first
Sedimentary rocks show the actions of wind and water
metamorphic rock
Metamorphic rocks are formed when an existing rock is changed by heat and/or pressure.

Metamorphic rocks can be formed from any type of rock, including another metamorphic rock. But sedimentary rocks are the most common type of rocks that metamorphic rocks come from.
recrystallization
Sometimes extreme heat and pressure break bonds between atoms. The atoms then join together differently to create new bonds. This results in new, sometimes bigger crystals and new minerals are formed.
shale is a sedimentary rock that forms near the surface

shale changes to slate as pressure causes minerals to line up, mica starts to grow from recrystallization

slate changes to phyllite deeper in the crust, because of higher temperatures and pressures, more mica means it is shinier

phyllite changes to schist, more recrystallization means completely new types of minerals replace the old ones

schist changes to gneiss deep in the crust. light and dark minerals start to separate into bands, so many changes have happened that almost all the shale is gone
Rocks are usually disliked, ignored, or abused by kids. They are constantly changing and being recycled into other rocks. Their story is interesting.....
magma
melting
melting
crystallization
pressure & heat
melting & cooling
erosion ------> deposition
erosion ------> deposition
rocks are broken down and worn away by wind and water
these pieces of broken down rocks are called SEDIMENTS
these sediments are washed downstream where they settle on the bottom of lakes, rivers, and oceans
layers of earth are deposited on top of each other
erosion
pressure & heat
melting & cooling
layers of metamorphic rock
what does this look like?
http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es0602/es0602page02.cfm?chapter_no=investigation
examples of sedimentary rocks
conglomerate: made up of rounded pebbles cemented together
sandstone: sand grains cemented together into solid stone
halite: made when a body of seawater becomes closed off and evaporates
examples of metamorphic rocks
quartzite: a coarse-grained metamorphic rock derived from sandstone
schist: coarse grained metamorphic rock
marble: comes from metamorphosed limestone
examples of igneous rocks
pumice: light & porous, forms during explosive eruptions
basalt: hard, black volcanic rock, has low silica and low viscosity
obsidian: dense, volcanic glass, lava cools so quickly that crystals do not have time to grow
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