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The Transformation of Europe AP

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Saadia Hussain

on 20 November 2015

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Transcript of The Transformation of Europe AP

The Transformation of Europe
1450-1700s

Europe Before
Feudalistic, decentralized kingdoms
General lack of international trade
Decreased literacy & cultural production
All-powerful Catholic Church

Commercial Revolution
Protestant Reformation
NOT A ONE TIME EVENT!

Scientific Revolution
Renaissance
Renewed interest in classical art and thought
Renaissance Art
Martin Luther
German monk
Protestants v. Catholics
Bible over Pope
Faith = Salvation
Humanism - idea the people are capable of great accomplishments
Italy
Wealth from trade created leisure money
Highly urbanized - Genoa, Venice, Milan, and Florence
Non-hereditary government led to fierce competitions between wealthy families for power
Johann Gutenberg
&
the Printing Press
Mass production of the Bible = more people could read it
Increase access to books = spread of Renaissance ideas
One of the causes of the Reformation
Larger use of vernacular language = decrease in reliance on Church officials for knowledge
Collection of "rebellions" that decreased the power of the Church
There is NO King
95 Theses - criticized the practices of the Roman Catholic Church
Indulgences - granting entrance to heaven for a price
Important Point of Importance
Did not want to break away from the Church
Pope is ultimate authority
Fulfilling sacraments = Salvation
Counter-Reformation
Catholic
Effort to save the Church's reputation and increase membership
Council of Trent - met to rectify the abuses of the Church
Banned
indulgences
Established schools & seminaries to prepare clergy - "Jesuits"
Protestant Churches
Calvinists
Started by John Calvin
French but spread
Humans are bound to sin
Only those "elected" by God are saved and subject to his mercy
Predestination: you have saved before you are born
Lutheranism
Based on the teachings of Martin Luther
Found mainly in Germany

Bible (Word of God) is the ultimate authority
Sacraments - Baptism, Holy Communion, Absolution
Salvation through God's Grade and faith
The Church of England
"Catholic
Protestants
"
Sacraments
Apostolic Succession
Divinity and humanity of Jesus
No central figure
No central doctrine
Emphasis on scripture
Changes
Women
Emphasis on the Bible increased literacy
Women afforded better conditions in marriage
Still did not play a role in the Church
Social Upheaval
Equality in the Protestant eyes caused peasant revolts (German) to overthrow the old social order
Political Strife
French Catholic v. Huguenots
Edict of Nantes - Henry IV allowed religious toleration but with the condition that everyone would eventually become Catholic
Impacts
Kings gained power - individualism push them to take what they wanted
Advancements in science, math, and engineering - humanism drove people to push boundaries
Increase in economic output - rise of a middle class
Political Change
Kings become Protestants (especially Germany) to gain back power from the Church
Seizure of Church own land
Further consolidation of state
Economic changes during late 1400s-1600s
Colonialism: the establishment of colonies in one territory by people from another territory
Mercantilism: When a mother country exploits its colonies for raw materials.
Mother Country
Colony
Sell raw materials for cheap
Sell back finished goods for higher prices
Created colonies to get the gold (3 G's)
Gold = Power of Country
Economic Impact
Movement towards globalization
Banks = fund exploration
Joint-stock companies - individual investment in colonization
Consolidation of the merchant middle class
Political Impact
Monarch consolidate power through acquisition of gold, silver, raw materials
Monarchs fund exploration & colonization
Enlightenment
Full transcript