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Say It Like They Mean It Chapter 1
Transcript of Say It Like They Mean It Chapter 1
***The goal of any Sign-to-English interpretation is to produce an accurate and equivalent message from the source language to the target language that utilizes appropriate vocabulary, conveys the content well, demonstrates proper English structure, and portrays the signer's affect. ***
Assignments generally involve at least one hearing and one deaf consumer
Until recently, the hearing consumer has been overlooked
"Interpreters should not neglect the English speaker's comprehension of the message as well."
Consider the following:
Are they native English users?
What is their education level?
How much knowledge might they have about Deaf culture and the Deaf community?
The Hearing Consumer
What do you think has changed in the last 20 years that has caused the need for more Sign-to-English interpretation to be used???
The New Deaf Consumer
Previous Views of Sign-to-English Interpretation
Involved more in the education of interpreters
Only when hearing consumers are members of the community (interpreters, parents, or relatives of Deaf), are they involved in the education of interpreters.
Who Defines the Role of Interpreters??
"A" Language: The language learned at home, one's native language (Seleskovitch, 1978). The language in which a person is most fluent.
"B" Language: Acquired through classes, through interaction with people who use it, and by formal study.
What type of interpretation do you feel is the hardest to learn? Sign-to-Voice or Voice-to-Sign??
A Language, B Language
Components of Sign-to-English Interpretation
Conference of Interpreter Trainers (1984)
1. Decode and decipher the message
3. Anticipate and predict (pre-existing knowledge)
4. Process information and assess how to interpret it.
5. Remember what was said, refer back to pre-existing knowledge
6. Attend to and concentrate on the message
Say It Like They Mean It
"Our goal as interpreters is to take the message conveyed in one language and produce this message in another language so it is clearly rendered and understood by the consumers."
Who do we interpret for?
The Deaf Community
The Hearing Community
Those who know about the Deaf Community
Those who don't know about the Deaf Community
Hearing consumers generally know very little if anything about the Deaf culture. What are some examples of concepts that would need to be conveyed clearly by the interpreter so that everyone can understand the impact of the message?
"Interpreters give 'voice' to a Deaf consumer's message. They do not speak their own thoughts; yet they choose to use certain words and phrases and therefore have an impact on the ability of the audience to understand the message intended by the presenter."
In the book
Interpreting for Deaf People
, it was called "reverse interpreting".
Was referred to as "an explanation of another person's remarks through the language of signs."
Interpretation was defined as the "process of transmitting spoken English into American Sign Language and/or gestures for communication between deaf and hearing people", but nothing was said about the process of sign-to-voice.
Present Day :)
We now recognize that Sign-to-Voice interpreting is a process of interpreting. We know that interpreters must master this skill set in order to provide the best possible service for our deaf and hearing consumers.
Following the syntax of ASL while producing an English interpretation.
***Prosody (use of space, rhythm, and visual cues working together to convey meaning).***
Visual Messages require more effort than listening to information.
The eyes use voluntary muscles, the ears don't require effort.
ASL is 3-D,
English is 1-D
ASL is not taught formally to native users and has no written form. It also changes over time. Not all D/deaf or HoH are fluent in ASL. As such there is rarely a pure delivery.
The interpreter must interrupt the speaker if a term is not understood.
Hearing people are less forgiving of interpreting errors because they aren't as familiar with the process as the Deaf
Source (Speaker) made up of:
Message made up of:
Receiver (Listener) made up of:
Models of Interpreting
Colonomos Model (1989)
1. Take in information received from the source language
2. Analyzing the message conveyed by the source language
3. Constructing meaning from the information received.
4. Analyzing how to portray an equivalent message in target language
5. Producing the message into the target language.
RSA Federal Interpreting Center (1995)
1. Vocabulary selection. The interpreter must choose appropriate English words, showing a variety in the vocabulary selection, avoiding repetition
2. Message conveyed. The content should be accurately conveyed and rendered faithfully. There should be no skewing of the message or conceptual errors in stating the message
3. English structure. The interpreter must adhere to the rules of grammar, effectively expressing the signed message into proper English, using an appropriate selection of pronouns, verb tenses, and modifiers.
4. Signer affect conveyed. The interpreter must understand the presenter's perspective and convey the speaker's emotions, mood and style of speaking.
By Jean E Kelly