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Chapter 4 Newspapers

COJO 1000 Introduction to Mass Media University of Wyoming

Rebecca Roberts

on 4 February 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 4 Newspapers

Chapter 4 Newspapers
History of Newspapers
Newspapers developed in Europe in the 1600s
Early newspapers were regulated by government, printers had to be licensed "By Authority of the King"
First colonial newspaper
Benjamin Harris 1690 Publick Occurences, Both Forreign and Domestick - 1 issue
In 1705 The Boston Gazette, several other papers
Seditious libel
laws made it illegal to criticize the King or government
Printers were licensed
1721 James Franklin's The New England Courant
Jailed for seditious libel
Forbidden to publish
1733 John Peter Zenger New York Weekly Journal
1734 - tried for seditious libel
Found innocent
Trial established truth as a defense of libel
Partisan press
develops as political parties support newspapers in the 1700s
Newspapers as Mass Media
The Penny Press
1833 - The Sun -Benjamin Day
Steam engine press
Dropped cost to a penny
Wire services
Morse's telegraph - 1837
Associated Press - 1846
Cooperative news gathering
Yellow Journalism Late 1800s

Stunt Journalism
Objective journalism
began as a response to Yellow journalism
Och's 1896 -The New York Times "All the News That's Fit to Print
The Wall Street Journal
Styles of Journalism
Objective journalism
Interpretive journalism
Literary Journalism - f
acts in fiction form
Advocacy Journalism -
to generate support for a cause
Precision Journalism
-employs science and research
Consensus journalism
Watchdog journalism

Decline in readership since 1940s
Visual and journalistic style
Newspapers control the news
What stories are told
How they are told
Newspapers and Culture
Newspapers ultimately answer to readers, owners, and advertisers
Readership in decline since 1940s
Struggle to attract young readers
The Newspaper Industry
Metropolitan Daily
National Daily
Dramatic increase in newspaper chains, consolidation
1900 - 10% owned by chains
1980s - 40%
Today - 80%
Newspaper Preservation Act of 1970 creates Joint Operating agreements
Cost cutting and layoffs - newspapers layoff 15,000 in 2009
Online Journalism
Little time constraints with breaking news
No space constraints
Less expensive production
Crowdsourcing and participation
Online traditional newspapers
Online only newspapers
News aggregators
Competing with free content
Advertising less expensive
Instant news cycle and fact checking/editing.
Gatehouse Media - publishing under a Creative Commons license
Joseph Pulitzer
New York World
William Randolph Hearst
New York Journal
Newspaper organizations
1990 US Dailies 1, 611
2008 US Dailies 1,408
2008 39% read paper day before
Lower readership among young people
Impartiality in writing
Neutral voice
Both sides of the story
Reliance on sources
Objective journalism
News analysis and context
Response to competition
Separate news from opinion
Supports social and economic harmony
Conflict journalism
Focuses on stories outside of social norms
Scrutiny of government activities and business
The Fourth Estate
The impact of television on newspapers
Ownership Patterns
Declining readership
Challenges for newspapers
Types of online journalism
Advantages over print
Types of Publications
Chapter 4 Assignment
Due Friday, 2/7
1. USA Today
2. Wall Street Journal
3. The New York Times
4. Los Angeles Times
5. The Washington Post
6. The Chicago Tribune
Major Publications in US
Decreasing revenues
In 2011 losses in print revenue outpaced gains in digital revenue 10 to 1
Industry revenue as shrunk 43% since 2000
Select one of the six major publications discussed in this chapter and analyze a news story on a major current event that interests you.
1. Which style or model of journalism do think the article represents?
2. Is the article objective? Give specific evidence from the article to support your answer.

This assignment should be 1-2 pages turned in to the Chapter 4 Drop-box as a Word attachment. You must cite the article you use for this assignment. Assignments should have standard 1 inch margins, 11-12 pt font, and double spacing.
News aggregators
Aggregate syndicated stories from news
Do not report or edit stories (no cost)
Do charge advertisers and make money.
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