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Research-based Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century
Transcript of Research-based Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century
Helping Students Develop Understanding
Helping Students Extend and Apply Knowledge
Two research-based strategies in extending and applying knowledge:
Creating The Environment for Learning
The Nine Categories of Instructionals Strategies
The nine categories can be divided into three.
First three instructional strategies when applied will lead to a positive learning environment. They are:
1.Set learning objectives that are specific but not restrictive.
2.Communicate the learning objectives to student and parents.
3. Connect the learning objectives to previous and future learning.
4. Engage students in setting personal learning objectives. Make them on the learning objectives. This make them self-directed learners(Dean,et al,2012)
1.Provide feedback to make students understand what was correct and what was incorrect and to make clear what students need to do next.
2.Provide feedback in time to meet students needs.
3.Feedback should be criterion-referenced Feedback should make students see their performance in relation to the expected outcome or the learning target and not in relation to the classmates performance.
4.Engage students in the feedback process (Dean, et al,2012). This way, they are made to reflect on their own performance and exchange feedback with peers. This can help them become lifelong learners.
What can reinforce student effort?
1.Promote a mastery-goal orientation.
2.Provide praise thatis specific and aligned with expected performance and behaviors.
Cues, questions and Advance
This can be done by:
1.giving a preview of what is to be learned perhaps with the use of pictures.
2.by explaining the learning outcomes of the lesson/unit.
3.providing a list of guide questions that they should be able to answer at the end of the lesson/unit.
2.Physical models or manipulatives
4.Create pictures, illustrations and pictograph
5.Engage in kinesthetic activities
Summarizing and Note taking
The following processes can help students do the summarizing:
1.use summary frames
2.engage students in reciprocal teaching
Three formats for note taking:
3.a combination of webbing and informal outlining
Assigning homework and providing practice
To ensure that homework works:
1.design homework that provides students with opportunities to practice skills and processes in order to increase their speed,accuracy,fluency and conceptua understanding or to extend their learning on a topic already learned or to learn new content
2.provide feedback on homework
3.homework should be aligned to the learning outcomes or objectives.
Identifying similarities and differences
Dean, et al,2012 give four strategies in identifying similarities and differences namely:
Generating and Testing