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Stem Cell Research

An grade 11, biotechnology project examining embryonic and adult stem cell research
by

Joshua Onwugbonu

on 11 April 2014

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Transcript of Stem Cell Research

photo (cc) Malte Sörensen @ flickr
Stem Cells
(Embryonic & Adult)

Presentation By:
Umar Malik
Josh Onwugbonu
Oneeb Javaid
What is a stem cell?
Stem cells are
unspecified cells
that can develop into many different cell types in the body.
They serve as an internal repair system (tissues),
They divide continuously to replenish other cells.
When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential either to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, (muscle cell, liver cell, red blood cell, brain cell etc.)
Stem cell research began in the 1950's
Embry nic and Adult
There are two types of stem cells:
Embry nic & Adult
=P
XD
A multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development,
The development of the embryo is called embryogenesis. In organisms that reproduce sexually, once a sperm fertilizes an egg cell, the result is a cell called the zygote, which possesses half the DNA of each of its two parents.
In humans it is called an embryo until about eight weeks after fertilization.
from then it is instead called a fetus.
whats a human?
Just watch this
Y U NO SAY THAT
IN THE FIRST PLACE!?
How do embryonic stem cells work?
Most embryonic stem cells are come from embryos that develop from eggs that have been fertilized in vitro—in an in vitro fertilization clinic
Growing cells in labs =
cell culture
.
Human embryonic stem cells (HESCs):
scientists transfer cells from a preimplantation-stage embryo into plastic laboratory culture dish (contains a nutrient: culture medium.)
Cells divide and spread over the surface of the dish.
Inner surface of the culture dish coated with mouse embryonic skin cells = feeder layer
(treated: will not divide) .
The mouse cells in the bottom of the culture dish provide the cells a sticky surface.
Feeder cells release nutrients into culture medium.
Generating an embryonic stem cell line =INEFFICIENT,
If the plated cells survive, divide and multiply enough to crowd the dish: removed/plated into many fresh culture dishes. (REPEATED FOR MANY MONTHS)
Each cycle of subculturing cells = Passage.
Once cell line is established: original cells create millions of embryonic stem cells.
Embryonic stem cells that have grown in cell culture for long period of time without differentiating, are pluripotent (Having the ability to give rise to all of the various cell types of the body.)
At any stage in the process, batches of cells can be frozen and shipped to other laboratories for further culture and experimentation.
When the stimulation process is complete , the stem cells can generate into different types of cells such as an eye...
...and also many other cell types such as:
blood cells,
lung cells,
or
brain cells.
so.. umm.. mr.prezi d..do my uh parents have steam shells like those tiny babies do and um, can they make smarticle particles in the brain too?
Yes... they are known as Adult Stem Cells
* Every "stem cell" is unspecialized.
Undifferentiated (not yet a specialized cell) taken from tissue or organ that can renew it self (Primary role is to maintain and repair tissue)
* 2 types of adult stem cells: Hematopoietic – can divide for all types of blood cells AND bone marrow stromal stem cells – can generate bone, cartilage, fat, fibrous connective tissue etc.
You said that stem cells are "unspecialized". If so, how can they be in adults. The cells in adults already have specific functions! Explain that!
to help you remember use this:
Bone Marrow Cells
Red Blood Cells
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
This process can be stimulated through cell culture, or in the mother's womb (Mitosis).
Stem cells are here (THE STEM, TRUNK, OR ROOT)
As they divide, they replicate specific cells.
Eventually the stem cells become a specified cell, and continue replicating themselves.
Adult stem cells are located in tissues or organs (
"stem cell niche"
) and specialize in regenerating the organ/tissue. Some examples are found in the blood, skin, bone marrow and muscles.
Stem cells may remain quiescent (non-dividing) for a long time until they are activated by a need for more cells to maintain tissues, or by disease or tissue injury.
There is a small # of stem cells in each tissue, (and once removed from the body, their capacity to divide is limited), making generation of large quantities of stem cells difficult.


1. Label cells with molecular marker then determine specialized cell types that are able to generate
Testing for adult stem cells:
2. Remove cells and transplant into another animal to see if they repopulate tissue of origin
*
s
t
e
m
cells
h
e
l
p
humans replace and repair damaged tissue and organs after injuries occur
still awake?
Don't worry... we aren't even close to finished yet... so hold on
What are the social and ethical implications of stem cell research and what can they be used for in the future?
Embryonic
Adult
pros
cons
in some cases the process includes abortion
dehumanizing
value of human life diminished (scientists can lead technology to clone or grow humans
many against government funding for stem cell research
religion (as long as religion exists, researchers will find it hard to continue their research on stem cells because masses of people are against them
destroys the idea of organ donors (many more patients can receive organs and tissues and waiting lines for such donations will be highly reduced
cures for many diseases (Cancer, Parkinson's, Diabetes, lung cancer, kidney failure, birth defects etc)
Scientists can lab grow as many supply of embryos needed for the research (they donate the embryos that are no longer in use or needed)
Health care system will benefit (more funding, more patients = more money)
will give more information about the biology of the human body and how it develops (increase in knowledge and technological growth)
Used to test new drugs (new medications could be tested for safety on differentiated cells generated from human pluripotent cell lines. The availability of pluripotent stem cells would allow drug testing in a wider range of cell types)
Generation of cells and tissues that could be used for cell-based therapies (Stem cells, directed to differentiate into specific cell types, offer the possibility of a renewable source of replacement cells and tissues to treat diseases including Alzheimer's diseases, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis)
not using embryos (no abortion, less controversies and debate over ethical and moral issues
takes less time for the process to occur
Can lead to cures for diseases such as cancer, Parkinson's, diabetes etc.
Diminish the use of organ donors
Adults can volunteer to take part in this research and process (have a choice unlike embryos that are helpless
value of human life dimishes
not heavily funded
many not aware of the research (most focus on embryonic because it is most popular and more debatable
harder to get a supply (scientists cannot use cell culture to grow adults for the stem cells
Annotated Bibliography
yes sir mr.prezi sir...
i'm awake now

...We're done
Choe, So Yeon. (Nov 1. 2009) Stem Cell Research: The Current State of Affairs. YaleMedLaw Retrieved From: http://www.yalemedlaw.com/2009/11/stem-cell-research-the-current-state-of-affairs/
The author published their article on the Yale Journal of Medicine & Law so that students and researchers could learn more about the current state of affairs in stem cell research. The issues surrounding this controversial topic are discussed in detail with considerable points from proponents and opponents. The current state of affairs is touched upon and government and private facilities that sponsor this research are talked about. Compared to the Euro StemCell organization listed below, this particular source talks more about what is currently being done in the field of stem cell research.

Euro StemCell. (March 23,2011 ) Embryonic Stem Cell Research: an ethical dilemma. Euro Stem Cell. Retrieved from: http://www.eurostemcell.org/factsheet/embryonic-stem-cell-research-ethical-dilemma
This organization is based in Europe and is comprised of over 90 European stem cell research and regenerative medicine labs. The members of the organization include scientists, clinicians, ethicists, social scientists and many more professionals. The aim of the website is to make stem cell research available to anyone who wishes to learn about this topic. The organization has many articles on various subtopics that have to do with stem cells. Ethical issues are just an example of the many articles available through the organizations website. In comparison to the International Society for Stem Cell Research which is cited below, this source is very reliable when it comes to ethical issues and easily accessible since real experts share their knowledge with anyone curious about stem cell research.

ISSCR. International Society for Stem Cell Research. ISSCR. Retrieved from http://www.isscr.org//AM/Template.cfm?Section=Home&WebsiteKey=12712f83-5609-4924-8964-9a0c74a2d0f9
This organization has over 3,500 stem cell research professionals around the world. The organization meets annually and these skilled professionals from academic, industry and government backgrounds all come together to discuss the latest research on stem cells. The website is for anyone to access and learn about anything that has to do with stem cells. Compared to the first article by Choe, this website is extremely reliable since it has thousands of experts that discuss stem cells internationally. It focuses more on how stem cells work compared to ethical issues and current affairs in this field. The organization has information on the background of stem cells such as how they work ,what they actually are and potential uses and possibilities in the future of stem cell research.

O’Neil, Peaches. Social, Political, and Ethical Implications of Stem Cell Research. Newsflavor (Sep 6, 2007). Retrieved from: http://newsflavor.com/world/usa-canada/social-political-and-ethical-implications-of-stem-cell-research/
The author has taken information from various sources such as the University of Kansas Medical centre and the National Institute of Health. The article is aimed at anyone looking into social, political or ethical implications that have to do with stem cell research. Compared to Rickard, this article has more in depth information on the social and political side of the ethical issues. The potential to help save lives and the issues involved with stem cell research are discussed and give a good idea of the main issues in this field of research.

Rickard, Maurice. (November 12, 2002). Key Ethical Issues in Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Social Policy Group. Retrieved from: http://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/library/pubs/cib/2002-03/03cib05.pdf
The article is focused on the ethical implication involved with embryonic stem cell research. Two sides are constantly debating whether embryonic research is allowable or an unjust act. The author from the Social Policy group in Australia presents many pros and cons to embryonic stem cell research and discusses the ethical issues. This article is presented to the department of the Parliamentary library which includes senators and other members of the Australian parliament. Compared to the article by O’Neil, this article goes into depth and explains the benefits and issues in detail. This article provides many different ethical implications related to stem cell research and arguments for and against each implication.

Stem Cell Basics. In Stem Cell Information .Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Us Department of Health. Retrieved from http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/defaultpage
The organization from the National Institutes of Health has made available online articles that contain stem cell information. The institute has made the website available to the public to answer any questions that the public may have on stem cells. The basic of stem cells and how they work and what they are is discussed. The resources include diagrams and pictures which aren’t available in many previous listed sources. This website is a reliable resource due to the fact that it is run by the U.S government. A wide range of articles and information about stem cells is available here.

University of Utah. (2010). Unlocking Stem Cell Potential. University of Utah. Retrieved from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/stemcells/scfuture/
The University of Utah’s Genetic Science Learning Centre has a wide database of Stem cell information. The University has made the information available on their website for students or anyone particularly interested in stem cells to access. Along with the large database of information, the university also has slideshow presentations that talk about various subtopics to do with stem cells. The video in the link listed provided information on the potential future possibilities that stem cells hold. With enough research they may be able to cure various disease and illness. This resource is up to date when compared to the other resources such as the article by Rickard and offers a large database of information on stem cells.
Works Cited
Pictures
Animated images
Videos
Extra information
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