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AP US History

Stephanie M

on 14 May 2013

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Transcript of Presidents

George Washington: Unanimously voted
Set a precedent for 2 terms
Created a cabinet
Said not to get involved with Europe
Concerned with political parties
Be aware of sectionalism
Crushed whiskey rebellion Adams: •Unofficial Fighting with France: The XYZ Affair and War Hysteria Jefferson: Native Americans 1.Initially with Columbus a.Disease, Disorganization, Disposability (3Ds)
i.Disease – Unable to resist disease (Small pox)
ii.Disorganization – There was no inter tribe organization and therefore the Europeans’ could easily overtake tribal land
1.Two diverse and therefore could not band together iii.Disposability
1.The Native Americans served no benefit to the European colonial society and therefore were either killed or pushed to the west a.Also the effects of disease made them almost incapable of serving a slave role
iv.The Indians also could not trust the Europeans because the Europeans were always going back on deals
1.The Europeans also always wanted more land
2.Encomienda → allowed the government to “commend” or give, Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to try to Christianize them. (IE Slavery)
a.Spanish had something to do with the institution of slavery Was picked by the House
Was tied with Burr
Constitution was worded too vaguely
He would Have sided with France
Did not want a big federal government
Embargo Act
Did not want a big army
Got rid of Alien and Sedition Acts
Louisiana PURCHASE
Because they wanted New Orleans PRESIDENT INITIALLY Plantation Economies a.“Soil butchery” resulting from tobacco The Iroquois Confederacy (“The League of the Iroquois” in the Mohawk Valley of NYS)
a.Composed of the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecasi. Founded in the late 1500s by Deganawidah and Hiawatha
1.Survival was ultimately threatened by other tribes, European colonists, disease, whiskey, and muskets.
b.The longhouse was their societal building block
i.Allied alternately with the French and British
1.Ultimately sided with the British against the Colonists in the revolutionary war, and thus the confederacy was left in tatters after British defeat. Puritans versus Indians a.Spread of settlements led to clashes with natives
b.Wampanoag chieftain Massasoit signed a treaty with the Plymouth Pilgrims in 1621
i.Wampanoag helped the Pilgrims have the first Thanksgiving in that same year.
c.1637 – hostilities exploded between English settlers and the powerful Pequot tribe
i.English militiamen and their Narragansett Indian allies annihilated the Pequot tribe
ii.English missionary zeal did not match Spanish or French.
d.In 1675, Massasoit's son, Metacom (nicknamed King Philip by English) launched a series of attacks and raids against the colonists' towns
i.Tried to unite tribes
ii.Ultimately, war ended in 1676, Metacom beheaded, wife/son sold into slavery; N.E. natives weakened. Colonial Unity a.In 1643, primarily for defense and to address inter-colonial problems, 4 colonies banded together to form the New England Confederation
i.Consisted of only Puritan colonies - two Massachusetts colonies (the Bay Colony and small Plymouth) and two Connecticut colonies (New Haven and the scattered valley settlements)
1.R.I. and Maine blackballed.
b.Each had 2 votes regardless of size
i.1st step toward colonial unity and representative gov’t
1. King paid little attention to colonies
2.Became semiautonomous until after civil war.
c.After restoration, King Charles II, in 1662, as slap at the Bay Colony, gave rival Connecticut a sea-to-sea charter grant, which legalized the squatter settlements.
d.1663 – Rhode Island outcasts received new charter and, thus, kingly sanction to the most religiously tolerant government devised in Americai.Bay Colony charter revoked in 1684. Quaker Pennsylvania and Its Neighbors (1680s) The Quakers treated the Indians very well; bought land from Chief Tammany

Led the armed march of the Paxton Boys in Philadelphia in 1764, protesting the Quaker oligarchy's lenient policy toward the Indians, and a few years later, spearheaded the Regulator movement in North Carolina, a small but nasty insurrection against eastern domination of the colony's affairs; many became revolutionaries and 12 future presidents (ex. Jackson) were descendants; SUPREME COURT CASES Marbury Vs Madison It is determined that the judicial court can determine constitutionality Slavery Initially with Columbus a.“The Negroes are so willful and loth to leave their own country, that have often leap’d out of the canoes, boat and ship, into the sea, and kept under water till they were drowned, to avoid being taken up and saved by our boats, which pursued them; they having a more dreadful apprehension of Barbadoes than we can have of hell.” i.Slave code → Barbados Slave Code (1661)1.Denied the fundamental rights to slaves and gave masters complete control over their laborersa.Including the right to inflict vicious punishments for even slight infractions. 2.Inspired statues governing slavery throughout the mainland colonies. a.They would use something similar b.First brought into the South → in particular the Carolinas The beginning of the Carolinas (1653) a.Carolinians were paying high prices for slaves experienced in rice cultivation
i.They needed people who knew this system
ii.They were more useful than the Native Americans 1640 – 1690 (Caribbean) a.To support the massive sugar crops, 250,000 African slaves were imported (1640-1690)
i.By 1700, the number of black slaves to white settlers in the English West Indies by nearly 4 to 1
ii.To control the large number of slaves, the Barbados Slave Code of 1661 denied even the most fundamental rights to slaves The Plantation Colonies a.Devoted to export of commercial agricultural productsi.Profitable staple crops of tobacco and rice1. Slavery took hold in all but reform-minded Georgia (resisted until after 1750)2.Mostly aristocratica.Widely dispersed plantations retarded urban growthi.“Soil butchery” resulting from tobacco farming promoted westward expansion, penetration, and conflict.ii.Rice, Tobacco, and later on Tobacco 1.If it is large there will not be a lot of plantations a.Owners are wealthy with a lot of workers2.Monopoly in a sense 3.Wants to keep its cost low a.Slave labor Bacon’s Rebellion:→ Bacon sides with the poor people Ignited the smoldering resentments of landless former servants
He had pitted the hardscrabble backcountry frontiersmen against the haughty gentry of the tidewater plantations
Tensions remained
So What…
They view the indentured servants as rebills who can be problems
Instead Slavery Colonial Slavery a. Slavery → great majority arrived after 1700
i. Most of the human cargos came to Spanish and Portuguese South America or to the sugar-rich West Indies
1. Hard pinched white colonists, struggling to stay alive and to hack crude clearings out of the forests
b. Rising wages in England shrank the pool of penniless folk willing to gamble on a new life or an early death as indentured servants in America
i. Large planters feared the mutinous former servants in their midst
ii. Black slaves outnumbered white servants among the plantation colonies’
c. Royal African Company
i. Lost its crown-granted monopoly on carrying slaves to the colonies
ii. Rhode Islanders rushed to cash in on the lucrative slave trade
1. And the supply of slaves rose steeply
d. Middle Passage
i. Death rates ran as high as 20 percent
ii. Survivors were eventually shoved onto auction blocks in New World ports like Newport, Rhode Island, or Charleston, South Carolina, where a giant slave market traded in human misery
1. A few of the earliest African immigrants gained their freedom, and some even became slave-owners themselves
a. White colonists reacted remorselessly to this supposed racial threat
e. Legal difference between a slave and a servant was unclear
i. “Slave codes” made blacks and their children the property for life of their white masters
ii. Racial discrimination also powerfully molded the American slave system US HISTORY VOTING RIGHTS How does Democracy Change in Meaning?? a.Building the Bay Colony
i.“Freemen” adult males who belonged to the Puritan congregations, which in time came to be called collectively the Congregational Church
1.AKA Visible saints
2.Unchurched men remained vote less in provincial elections, as did women.
ii.Governor Winthrop
1.Believed democracy was the “meanest and worst” of all forms of government
2.Afraid of the radical ideas of some people
b.1639 settlers of he new Connecticut River colony drafted the Fundamental Orders
i.Effect a modern constitution
ii.Established a regime democratically controlled by the “substantial” citizens
iii.Were later borrowed by Connecticut for its colonial charter and ultimately for its state constitution Religious Freedom: 1649 a.Maryland’s Act of Toleration i.Granted religious toleration to all Christians 1.But decreed the death penalty to those who did not believe in the divinity of Jesus 2.By Lord Baltimore ii.Would eventually lead to the idea of religious toleration for all MADISON Democratic Republican
Macon's Bill No. 2
It reopened American trade with the entire world and dangled the lure of an embargo against either France or Britain if the other repealed commercial restrictions against the U.S.
Caused the War of 1812 WAR of 1812 Under Madison
Against British
Goal for US
To attack Canada
Who were believed to not be that supportive of Britain
Bad Generals
Canada fails because they underestimated the strength of Canada
Probably should have gone under Montreal
Important people
Oliver Perry
William Henry Harrison
British then attack and burn the "Executive Mansion" --> they are stopped at Fort McHenry
Francis Scott Key - writes the Star Spangled Banner
while watching the fight in Baltimore
Andrew Jackson
Increased confidence in the USA
When the British attack New Orleans
Happens after the treaty of Ghent was signed
Native Americans feel betrayed by the British AMERICAN REVOLUTION War of 1812 The Native Americans were betrayed by the British
Forced to give up land to the USA TARIFFS -Excise tax (Hamilton)
-Protective Tariff (Henry Clay 1816)
-Tariff of 1828 (Jackson)
-Tariff of 1832 (Jackson)
-Which did away with the worst parts of the Tariff of 1828, such as lowering the tariff down to 35%, a reduction of 10%
-Tariff of 1833 (Jackson)
- About 10% over a period of eight years, so that by 1842 the rates would be down to 20% to 25%.
- Robert J. Walker (Polk)
-Lowered from 32% to 25%
-The Dingley Tariff Bill was passed to raising the tariff level to whopping 46.5 % (McKinley)
- Payne-Aldrich Bill (Taft) (Split Republicans)
- Underwood Tariff – lowered duties (Wilson)
-Fordney McCumber Tariff – high increase in duties (Harding)
-The Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930 raised the tariff to an unbelievable 60%! (Hoover) Monroe The Panic of 1819
A major cause of the panic had been over-speculation in land prices, where the Bank of the United States fell heavily into debt. Jeffersonian Republicans vs. Hamiltonian Federalists Fundamental beliefs Jefferson favored states rights over a strong central government. He supported the idea that states could nullify federal laws. Hamilton had very little faith in a "average" person. He once stated that ,"the people ... seldom judge or determine right." Jefferson believed that the ''best people'' should rule, similarly to a monarchy. Who Should Govern Hamilton wanted the rich to be in charge of the government because he felt as if the poor or lower class was not worthy to make decisions. Best type of government Jefferson preferred Republic, he wanted a small type of government with limited powers. Hamilton preferred Federalism, he thought the federal government should have the most power. Ideas on Economy Jefferson favored an economy based on agriculture, with farm folk. Hamilton firmly supported government invention in favor of business. Hamilton opposed the British ideas of free trade because he believed it skewed benefits to colonial and imperial powers, but was in favor of US protectionism, which he believed would help develop the fledgling nation's emerging economy. Views on constitution Jefferson strictly viewed the constitution Hamilton favored a broad interpretation of the constitution to strengthen the central government. Hamilton also believed commoners were ignorant and not capable of self-government “The constitution shall never be construed...to prevent the people of the United States who are peaceable citizens from keeping their own arms.”
-Alexander Hamilton Thoughts on Foreign Policy Jefferson was the first president to commit the U.S forces to a foreign war (Barbary War). He purchased the Louisiana Territory from France. The Louisiana Purchase was Jefferson's greatest diplomatic and foreign policy achievement. He also created The Embargo Act which ended the trading with foreign countries from U.S. merchants. This act was used in order to keep the U.S. out of war by keeping American ships away from the blockades during the war in Europe. Hamilton believed that the U.S. should stay out of the war between France and Great Britain, which angered the French, being that without them we as Americans would have never won the American Revolution. He believed in a strong centralized government and he relied on economics and his knowledge with numbers to succeed in life. “A powerful, victorious ally is yet another name for master.”
-Alexander Hamilton I hope we shall crush in its birth the aristocracy of our monied corporations which dare already to challenge our government to a trial by strength, and bid defiance to the laws of our country. -Thomas Jefferson McCulloch vs Maryland 1819 say the bank is constitutional
Maryland tried to tax the national bank
Marshall said that they could not do that
Implied that "loose construction"
Saying that the states cannot inhibit a creation of the federal government Cohens vs. Virginia The federal supreme court won the right to review the decisions of the state supreme courts
The federal government won, the states lost
The lottery was created with a congressional law
Therefore the federal government and its judiciary branch has the right to review what a state court has done with that law Gibbons vs Ogden When New York tried to grant a monopoly of waterborne commerce, Marshall struck it down by saying that only Congress can control interstate commerce, not the states themselves
It did not just control New York because it moved goods and people
Federal court controls interstate commerce John Marshall John Marshall John Marshall John Marshall Fletcher vs. Peck After Georgia fraudulently granted 35 million acres in the Yazoo River country (Mississippi) to privateers, the legislature repealed it after public outcry, but Marshall ruled that it was a contract, and that states couldn’t impair a contract.
The case protected property right and was an early example of the Court’s power to invalidate a state law as unconstitutional. Dartmouth College vs. Woodward States could not impair the contract that Dartmouth had had with the king John Marshall John Marshall Treaty of 1818 Put the northern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase at the 49th parallel and provided for a ten-year joint occupation of the Oregon Territory with Britain, without a surrender of rights and claims by neither Britain nor America.
Goes all the way to the Rocky Mountains
Oregon area would be shared Andrew Jackson got Florida without command
Had Spain cede Florida and shadowy claims to Oregon in exchange for abandonment of claims to Texas (soon to be part of Mexico).
U.S. paid $5 million to Spain for Florida. The Florida Purchase Treaty of 1819 (ADAMS-ONIS TREATY) Monroe Doctrine
Telling European countries not to interfere with the Americas
Stop colonization
Uses British support to back up the doctrine Monroe Doctrine In the Russo-American Treaty of 1824 The Russian Tsar fixed the southern boundary of his Alaskan territory at 54°40’ and it stayed at that. John Quincy Adams Son of John Adams
Elected in 1848
In the results, Jackson got the most popular votes and the most electoral votes, but he failed to get the majority in the Electoral College.
The House elected John Adams
Because he was backed up by Henry Clay
Corrupt (?) Election
Wrong president, wrong time, wrong origin
He lacked the people's touch
Was able as a secretary of state
Did not replace many officials Andrew Jackson From Carolinas
Moved to Tennessee (Native Americans)
Thought the government was for the rich
Thought it should be more for the common man
Was sickly when he was elected 1828
Personified the new West
Western aristocrat
Called “Old Hickory” by his troops because of his toughness.
Commanded fear and respect from subordinates
Used the veto 12 times
At inauguration, commoners permitted to attend
Ignored the Supreme Court on several occasions
Conservatives condemned Jackson as “King Mob” and berated him greatly
The spoils system rewarded supporters with good positions in office – PATRONAGE
Did not start the spoil system but continued it
Eliminated National Debt
Indian Removal Act
Arrogance he has towards the presidency Alexis de Tocqueville Impressed with the Democracy within the USA
At this time, over 50% of white males had voted – in contrast with Britain, France
Afraid of suffocating conformity or the tyranny of the majority and radical individualism – regarding destiny in one’s own hands – loneliness and detachment from the notion of society 1813, over 50% of white males had voted – in contrast with Britain, France Many people respected the Indians, though, and tried to Christianize them
i.e. the Society for Propagating the Gospel Among Indians (est. 1787)
Congress also promoted literacy and farming/vocational instruction.
The Cherokees, the Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and the Seminoles were known as the “Five Civilized Tribes”.
Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830
Supreme Court challenges upheld Indian rights, but Jackson openly defied it
He justified “removal” (Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830) by claiming culture would be preserved in the open west (Oklahoma was designated to be their permanent territory)

Thousands of Indians died on the “Trail of Tears” after being uprooted from their sacred lands that had been theirs for centuries.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs was established in 1836 to deal with Indians.
In 1832, in Illinois and Wisconsin, the Sauk and Fox tribes revolted but were crushed JACKSONIAN TIMES Jacksonian Times Slavery and growing regional conflict also figured into the South’s angry reaction.The post-Missouri Compromise bitterness lingered in the South.Also, Denmark Vesey, a free Black, led an ominous slave rebellion in Charleston, raising fears about tightening federal control over slaves. Trail of Tears Two Term Van Buren First president to have been born in America
New Yorker
Lacked the support of many Democrats and Jackson’s popularity
Rebellions in Canada in 1837 threatened to plunge America into war
Depression caused by Jackson’s BUS killing
Anti-slavery northerners also vigorously opposed the prospective annexation of Texas. TEXAS Americans continued to covet Texas, and in 1823, after Mexico had gained independence from Spain.
Stephen Austin made an agreement with the Mexican government to bring about 300 families into a huge tract of granted land to settle.
The stipulations were:
(1) They must become Mexican citizens
(2) They must become Catholic
(3) No slavery allowed.
These stipulations were largely ignored by the new settlers. Whigs Generally, the Whigs:
Disliked Jackson
A whig in Britain was Edmund Burke
Supported Henry Clay’s American System and internal improvements
Attracted support of northern manufacturers, southern planters, merchants and bankers
Also, they absorbed the Anti-Masons
Portrayed Jackson and New York successor Martin Van Buren as aristocrats
Claimed to be the defenders of the common man – as opposed to the Democrats, the party of cronyism and corruption
Trumpeted the natural harmony of society and the value of community.
Berated leaders whose appeals and self-interest fostered conflict among individuals.
Favored a renewed national bank, protective tariffs, internal improvements, public schools, and moral reforms.
Mostly more aristocratic and wealthier.Generally from the East. The Texans (among them Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie) resented the “foreign” government, but they were led by Sam Houston. Friction increased.
In 1830, Mexico freed its slaves and prohibited them in Texas, much to the anger of citizens.
In 1833, Stephen Austin went to Mexico City to clear differences and was jailed.
In 1835, dictator Santa Anna started to raise an army to suppress the Texans.
The next year, they declared their independence.
After armed conflict and slaughters at the Alamo and at Goliad, Texan war cries rallied citizens, volunteers, and soldiers, and the turning point came after Sam Houston led his army for 37 days eastward, then turned on the Mexicans, taking advantage of their siesta hour, wiping them out, and capturing Santa Anna.
The treaty he was forced to sign was later negated by him on grounds that the treaty was extorted under duress.
It included provision that Rio Grande was the border.
Texas was supported in their war by the United States, but Jackson was hesitant to formally recognize Texas as an independent nation until he had secured Martin Van Buren as his successor, but after he succeeded, Jackson did indeed recognize Texas on his last day before he left office, in 1837.
Many Texans wanted to become part of the Union, but slavery issue blocked this. WAR FOR TEXAS INDEPENDENCE (1836) Inspirational
Loss Becomes the Lone Star Republic (9 yrs) Democrats Glorified the liberty of the individual.
Clung to states’ rights and federal restraint in social and economic affairs.
Mostly more humble, poorer folk.
Generally from the South and West. William Henry Harrison Fought against native Americans
Governor of Indiana
Beat Van Buren in the Election of 1840
Was president for 32 days Jacksonian Democracy said that whatever governing that was to be done should be done directly by the people.
This time was called the "New Democracy", and was based on universal white manhood suffrage.
In 1791, Vermont became the first state admitted to the union to allow all white males to vote in the elections. 1830s- 1840s Evolution of Democracy First Whig John Tyler Westward Movement Settlers trapped beavers, sea otters, and bison (the latter two were virtually annihilated) for fur to ship back East

ECOLOGICAL IMPERIALISM Population The Irish potato famine in the mid-1840s led to the death of 2 million and saw many flee to the U.S.
"Black Forties”—they mainly came to cities like Boston and especially New York (biggest Irish city).
The Ancient Order of Hibernians was established to aid the Irish
Gradual property ownership came about (a ticket out of poverty), and their children earned education.
Over 1.5 million Germans poured in between 1830s-1860s because of crop failures and revolution/war of 1848. Nativists Older Americans who were prejudiced against newcomers in jobs, politics, and religion (feared the growing influence of the hordes).
Nativists feared that Catholicism challenged Protestantism (Popish idols) so they formed the “Order of Star-Spangled Banner” AKA, “The Know-Nothings.” Samuel Slater – “Father of the Factory System”
Learned of textile machinery when working in British factory
He escaped to U.S., was aided by Moses Brown and built 1st cotton thread spinner in the U.S. located in Rhode Island (1791)
Eli Whitney built a cotton gin (short for “engine”) (see right), which was 50 times more effective than separating cotton seed by hand.
Cotton economics were now profitable and saved the South and the institution of slavery with “King Cotton” Factory System U.S. population was 4th largest in the world (behind Russia, France, Austria).
A high birthrate had accounted for population growth, but near 1850s, millions of Irish and German came
Thus, immigration began to make its impact as well.
They came due to a surplus population in Europe, but not all came to U.S.
The appeal of the U.S. was for land, freedom from military service, no aristocracy, 3 meat meals a day, etc. (the American “magnet” began to create pull factors). PUSH FACTORS Ecological Imperialism Inventions Eli Whitney - Cotton Gin
Eli Whitney introduced machine-made inter-changeable parts (muskets) – 1850
Elias Howe & Issac Singer (1846) made the sewing machine
Samuel Morse’s telegraph
John Deere – invented the steel plow that cut through hard soil and could be pulled by horses
Cyrus McCormick – invented the mechanical mower-reaper to harvest grain
Robert Fulton invented the first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807 Worker System at the Time The factory system led to impersonal relations
The benefit went to factory owner
Hours were long, wages low, conditions unsafe and unhealthy, no unions existed to address these issues
Child labor was heavy
50% of the industrial labor force were children
Adult working condition improved in the 1820s & 30s with the mass vote given to workers10 hour day, higher wages, tolerable conditions, public education, a ban of imprisonment for debt
In the 1840s, President Van Buren established 10 hour day for federal employees
Many went on strike, but lost because employers simply imported more workers (the much-hated immigrants) Unions formed in the 1830s, but were hit by Panic of 1837
Case of Commonwealth v. Hunt in Massachusetts Supreme Court (1842) legalized unions for peaceful and honorable protest
However, the effectiveness of unions was small (due mostly to their threat of a strike was always undermined by the management’s ability to simply call in “scabs”, plentiful immigrants eager to work) Women In the Factory Poor conditions
Worked in nursing, domestic service, teaching
Women usually worked before marriage
Marriages due to love tied family closer
Families grew smaller (average of 6)
The fertility rate dropped sharply
This “domestic feminism” was a crude form of birth control
The home - a place of refuge and rest from labor at the mill The 1st railroad in U.S. was introduced in 1828
By 1860, 30,000 miles of railroad tracks had been laid in the U.S. (3/4 of those tracks were up North)
The railroads were 1st opposed because financiers were afraid of losing money from Erie Canal traffic
Railroads also caused fires to houses from their embers.
Early trains were poorly constructed (with bad brakes) and the gauge of tracks varied Trains: 1790 – 1860 EXPORTS AND IMPORTS Foreign exports
South — cotton account for 50% of exports
North — after the repeal of the British Corn Law of 1846, wheat became an important commodity in trade with England
Americans imported more than they exported (causing substantial debt to foreign creditors)
American vessels had been idle due to embargoes and panics
The U.S. Navy made little progress
Speedy communication popped up from Missouri to California, in the Pony Express (going 2,000 miles in 10 days).
The Pony Express was short-lived though, lasting but 2 years, and was replaced by the telegraph wire DIVIDED LABOR Principle of divided labor emerged with each region specializing in its own economic activity
South — cotton to New England
West — grain & livestock for the East & Europe
East — machines, textiles for South and West The era of the self-supported farm was changing to a more modern, specialty driven economy. Women's Rights The Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention (1848) – held in NY, it was a major landmark in women’s rights
Declaration of Sentiments – was written in the spirit of the Declaration of Independence saying that “all Men and Women are created equal”
Demanded ballot for women
Launched modern women’s rights movement Cotton is King! Before the Cotton Gin it was too labor intensive to clean the cotton, to produce it in quantity
After the Cotton Gin, more people are able to go into the lucrative business of Cotton and therefore they purchased more slaves
Cotton is King!
because the south started to rely on cotton markets
Foundation of southern economy
Traded with Europe, North
The north has dirty hands
Without the slaves the southern economy would be diminished Class System Aristocracy
Whites with 10 or less slaves
Slaveless Whites (3/4 of white population)
Move West
Poorest known as "poor white trash" "hillbillies" or "clay eaters"
Mountain Whites
Dont like slavery
Hate everyone
Free Blacks
Slaves (Majority)
Demonstrates the pains of slave auctions
Uncle Tom's Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe Problem of Slaves Whipping
No hope of the American Dream
Families would be split apart
Slave auctions Rebellions Gabriel in Richmond, VA
Denmark Vesey in Charleston
Nat Turner, 1831 The south is a slave to the slave system
It cannot escape slavery because it is founded around it South Those against Slavery American Antislavery Society
William Lloyd Garrison
Wendell Phillips
David Walker - Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World
Sojourner Truth
Martin Delaney
Considered Black reallocation
Frederick Douglass
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
He and others backed the Liberty Party in 1840, the Free Soil Party in 1848, and the Republican Party in the 1850s. Free slaves went to cities Specifically New Orleans
Which is an international city Plantation Slavery Slaves were an investment, thus were treated better and more kindly and were spared the most dangerous jobs, like putting a roof on a house, draining a swamp, or blasting caves
(Irishmen used to do that sort of work). Pro Slavery States South Carolina,
Louisiana Second Great Awakening Nominally a Whig
Lone Wolf
Did not really agree with the Whigs
Vetoed a New Bank of the United States Manifest Destiny James K. Polk Expansionist
Won Election of 1844 (Against Clay)
Texas was formally invited to become the 28th state of the Union
Four Step Plan
Lower the tariff
Restore the independent treasury (put U.S. money into non-government banks)
Clear up the Oregon border issue
Get California Texas made treaties with France, Holland, and Belgium
Concerns the United States
Could violate the Monroe Doctrine
The dominant Southern cotton economy would also be undercut by Texas cotton shipping to England. 28th State Balances out slavery and free
Yet would it be free or slave
Where is the boarder?
Leads to war with Mexico OREGON Explored by Lewis and Clark
Once claimed by Russia, Spain, England, and the U.S
English are living in north of Columbia River
Americans are living south
The Oregon Trail was a common route to Oregon
It is shared
Good hunting land
England first answered 42° latitude
Then said the Columbia River.
The U.S. first answered 54°40' latitude
Then said 49° latitude.
Polk was wary of the Mexicans Mexican Cession Finally, a border dispute existed:
Texas claimed its southern boundary to be the Rio Grande
Mexico claimed it to be the Nueces River
Polk felt that he had to defend Texas and did so, though he avoided conflict in disputed area.
Polk ordered 4000 men under Zachary Taylor to march from the Nueces River to the Rio Grande, provocatively near Mexican troops.
16 people died/wounded
Santa Anna told the U.S. that if he could return to Mexico, he would take over the government, end the war, and give California to the U.S.
Stephen W. Kearny
John C. Fremont
Zachary Taylor
Winfield Scott War lasts 2 years
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
US paid Mexico $15 Million and relieved a $3.2 Million
Mexico ceded a large area known as the Mexican Cession
Rio Grande River was established as the exact border
13,000 dead
Capt. Robert E. Lee and Lt. Ulysses S. Grant with invaluable battle experience Wilmot Proviso Stated that slavery should never exist in any of the Mexican Cession
Passed TWICE by the House
Never passed the Senate
This question ultimately ignited the Civil War in 1861, only 13 years later. Santa Anna’s Revenge --> Civil War caused by Texas Only 1 Term President General Zachary Taylor Hero in Mexican War
Nominated by the Whigs General Lewis Cass
Came up with the idea of popular sovereignty
For the issue of slavery As a result, California (privately encouraged by the president) drafted a constitution and then applied for free statehood, thus bypassing the usual territorial stage and avoiding becoming a slave state
Southerners were outraged
Because they applied to be a free state
Would disrupt balance GOLD RUSH Great Compromise of 1850 California admitted as a free state
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 passed
Mexican Cession determined by popular sovereignty
Divided into Utah and New Mexico
Slave trade in DC is prohibited
The Texas/New Mexico border was settled Fugitive Slave Act Feeing slaves couldn’t testify on their own behalf
The federal commissioner (judge) who handled the case got $5 if the slave was free and $10 if not
People who were ordered to help catch slaves had to do so, even if they didn’t want to. Meaning that Northerners had to support slave system Angry Northerners pledged not to follow the new law, and the Underground Railroad stepped up its timetable.
Now forced to be involved so they start thinking slavery is bad Underground Railroad
A secret organization that took runaway states north to Canada, was taking more and more slaves from the South.Harriet Tubman freed more than 300 slaves during 19 trips to the South.The South was also demanded a stricter fugitive slave law.
Need people, stations (Safe places), people who helped (conductors)
Had code of communication Franklin Pierce No Experience
In 1852 wins election
He was prepared to be a Southerners’ tool.
Signed Kansas Nebraska Act Ostend Manifesto
Try to buy Cuba
If fail - attack Gadsden Purchase A land acquisition from Mexico for $10 million
Flat and Dry Land
Excellent land for a planned southern pacific RR Route Kansas and Nebraska Act Republican Party Opposed the spread of slavery
Disgruntled Whigs (Lincoln among them)
Other foes of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
It rapidly gained strength (electing a Speaker in just 2 Years), but was a purely sectional party viewed by the South as “a nigger stealing, stinking, putrid, abolition party”.
Many factions during guilded age Buchanan Filmore Signed Compromise of 1850 From Pennsylvania
Runs against Fremont
Democrats Dred Scott Decision The Financial Crash of 1857: It’s causes were
California gold causing inflation,Over-growth of grain,Over-speculation, as always, this time in land and railroads John Brown: Pottawatomie Creek Massacre
Harper's Ferry
To invade the south
Seize military arms
Call upon slaves to revolt
Take over south
Free slaves
Slaves did not revolt
Captured by Robert E. Lee
Sentenced to death and hung Lincoln: Not originally abolitionist
Burned in effigy CIVIL WAR: Southern Strengths:
Fight Defensive War (North had to conquer it to preserve the Union)
Morale – South was fighting for independence and to preserve way of life
Superior Military Leaders (ex. Robert E. Lee and “Stonewall” Jackson)
Southerners Bred to Fight – Horsemen and Gunmen
Southern Weaknesses:
Shortage of manufactured goods as was dragged on (shoes, uniforms, etc.)
Poor transportation network Northern Strengths:
A superior economy – both agricultural and industrial
A superior navy – control of the seas enabled blockade (strangle the South) and the ability to maintain European trade
Population – larger at the outset and growing due to immigration.
Northern Weaknesses:
Soldiers initially less prepared for war
Poor Commanders – forcing Lincoln to use “trial and error” Why didn't Cotton cause the british to intervene? South Strategies To Secede To kill as many northerners so that they would give up Get Europe to play a role on their side Northern Strategies: To get the South to come back Capture Richmond
Capture Mississippi Takes away transportation Divides Confederacy
Blockade the south
To Choke off the south
So that they cannot get good in nor out Battles: 1. Bull Run I (Menasas) (VA.) (July, 1861)
2. Shiloh (TN) (April, 1862)
3. New Orleans (LA) (April – May, 1862)
4. The Peninsula Campaign (VA) (March – July, 1862)
b.Includes Yorktown (April – May)
c.Includes Seven Days Battle (June – July, 1862)
5. Bull Run II (Late August 1862)
6. Antietam (Md) (September, 1862) (TIE, but kinda a win for the North)
7. Fredericksburg (VA) (December, 1862)
8. Chancellorsville (VA) (May, 1863)
9. Vicksburg (MS.) (May – July 4, 1863)
10. Gettysburg (Pa) (July 1 – July 3, 1863)
11. Atlanta (GA) (September, 1863) Andrew Johnson Background:
Selected as Lincoln’s running mate in 1864
Democrat from Tennessee
Remained loyal to the Union
Not a secessionist, through a slave-owner
Faced calls for a strict reconstruction plan
Johnson Plan/Presidential Reconstruction/ Restoration
Impeached Emancipation Proclamation Grant's Total War:
Sherman's March to the Sea RECONSTRUCTION: Wade-Davis Bill: A MAJORITY of adult white males in a state would be required to take an Oath of Loyalty
Each State would be required to Abolish Slavery
All former Confederate Government officials and military officer barred from voting or holding office 10% Plan (Lincoln) When 10% of a state’s voters (1860 presidential election) had taken an OATH OF LOYALTY to the U.S. the state would be allowed to form a government
Each state would be required to ABOLISH SLAVERY (ratify the 13th Amendment)
AMNESTY (or pardon) to CONFEDERATES who swore loyalty to the union, but not to former leaders of the Confederacy
This is not an actual punishment Freedmen's Bureau Johnson Plan/Presidential Reconstruction/Restoration A MAJORITY of adult white males in a state would be required to take an Oath of Loyalty
Each State would be required to Abolish Slavery
All former Confederate Government officials and military officer barred from voting or holding office Reconstruction Act (1967) Divided the former Confederacy (except Tenn.) in 5 military districts Forced each state to design state constitutions acceptable to Congress (giving all adult males the right to vote – regardless of RACE) Forced each state to ratify the 14th Amendment Ulysses S. Grant 13th Amendment:
No Slavery 14th Amendment:
Citizenship 15th Amendment:
Right to vote MONEY ISSUES The Money Issue – Post Civil War 1900
Debtors Favored (SPECIFICALLY FARMERS)other forms of money (ex. Greenbacks, later silver)
Plentiful Money Supply
Bankers Favored “Hard” Money
Gold Limited Money Supply
Contraction (Shrinkage) of money supply
Deflation Scandal: Tweed Ring
Credit Mobilier
Whiskey Ring Weakened by Scandal
Beat Johnson (1868)
Beat Horace Greeley (1872) Panic of 1873 Overproduction
Risky Loans
Greenback Issues
Specie Resumption Act of 1875: Further withdrawal of Greenbacks and redemption of all paper currency in gold (not silver) at face value in 1879. Rutherford B. Hayes: Won by the Compromise of 1877
Against Samuel Tilden
Won presidency if ending military construction
Republican James Garfield Election of 1880
Against Democrat Winfield Hancock
Second president to be assassinated by Charles Guiteau
Garfield became a martyr in a corrupt civil service system—spurred public demand for reform
Arthur becomes president Chester A. Arthur NOT MUCH Pendleton Act of 1883 Prohibited hiring office holders based on wealth. Merit system for making appointments Set up Civil Service Commission charged with administering open competitive examinations to applicants for posts in classified office. Grover Cleveland Democrat
Won in Election of 1884 vs Blaine
Won the Solid South
Believer of Laissez Faire
Against military pensions
Against Tariffs
Dawes Act --> control Indians
Interstate Commerce Act --> curb railroads Benjamin Harrison Election of 1888
Vs Cleveland
Tariffs Increased BIG Business Andrew Carnegie - Steel
Started off with steam ships
Consolidation of industry
Rebates, Discounts, and Pools
John Rockefeller: Standard oil company
Morgan: Banking
Andrew Mellon: Venture Capitalist Railroads Pacific Railway Act
Union Pacific Railroad
Central Pacific Railroad
Chinese Laborers "coolies" built the railroad
Used rebates to big companies
Westinghouse Air Break coordinated all of the breaking
Pullman Car – sleeping, bathrooms
Increased level of service – Porters, Conductors, Waiters Interstate Commerce Act --> Created Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
Prohibited rebates and pools
Pools --> defensive alliance to protect their profits
Not super effective JAY GOULD Alexander Graham Bell's telephone Thomas Edison - light, phonograph, mimeograph, dictaphone, moving pictures Vertical Integration Controlling every aspect
Raw materials --> Finished Product Horizontal Integration
Consolidating with competitors to monopolize Interlocking Directorates: Bought controlling shares of stock in other companies Bessemer Process Social Darwinism The Gospel of Wealth Andrew Carnegie
Wealth was God's will
Should give away for public good Sherman Antitrust Act Henry W. Grady
Newspaper editor and most famous of southerners who urged South to out-produce the North commercially and industrially Crop-lien system Working Conditions: -Poor
-Workers were expendable
-Scab Workers (Worked during strikes)
-Government and courts were ANTIUNION → Senatorial Roundhouse (Helping business because the government represents the interest of railroad owners) "ironclad oaths" or "yellow dog contracts" --> Cannot sign a Union National Labor Union 1866
Led by William Sylvis
Lasted 6 years
Used Mediators (Non-binding) and Arbitrators (binding)
Killed by depressions of 1870s
Skilled craftsmen Molly Maguires --> Violent and Irish Great Railroad Strike (1877) Knights of Labor
Terence Powderly
Secret Society
One Big Union
Included Blacks and women
Equal pay
8-hr work day
replace wage system with all workers owning factories Haymarket Square Bombing American Federation of Labor (AFL) Samuel Gompers
Consisted of many small unions
Dealt with bread and butter issues
Basic issues
Closed Shop:
All workers in a unionized industry had to belong to the union
Used walkouts and boycotts
Only skilled workers (MEN) Homestead Strike (1892):
Carnegie Pullman Strike
Richard Olney sent federal troops Lochner v. New York Supreme Court overturned a New York law limiting bakers to 60/hr weeks. Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1913)
Exempted Unions from Sherman Antitrust provisions Skyscrappers (1865ish) Chinese Exclusion Act Women's Voting Rights (1860s - 1890s) Gold Standard Act of 1900 was passed – provided that paper currency be redeemed freely in Gold Spanish - American War OPEN DOOR POLICY In China Rooseveltian “corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine The landmark case of Muller vs. Oregon (1908) (p. 713) found attorney Louis D. Brandeis (later a justice himself) persuading the Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws that protected women workers Muller vs. Oregon On the other hand, the case of Lochner v. New York (1905) invalidated a New York law establishing a ten-hour day for bakers; however, in 1917, the Court upheld a similar law for factory workers Lochner v. New York (1905) William Howard Taft Ran against Bryan and Debs in 1908
Followed TR
Lacked the ability to politic with people
Could not keep all factions of republicans together
Dollar Diplomacy
More of a trust buster than Roosevelt
Signed Payne-Aldrich Bill (Angered Progressive Republicans)
Richard Ballinger - conservative issue T. Roosevelt Helped ensure that trusts would fit into capitalism and serve the public interest by helping the American people
Protected against socialism
A great conservationist
Expanded the powers of the modern presidency Shaped the Progressive movement - launched the Square Deal, precursor to the New Deal that would come later
Opened American eyes to its responsibilities as a world power
Big Stick Diplomacy Standard Oil Co. vs. US Court determines what’s a reasonable trust – Standard Oil Co. broken up Bull Moose Party Wilson Won against TR and Taft - NEW FREEDOM
Hated trusts (all trusts) - Federal Trade Commission
Federal Reserve Act – created federal reserve system
United States invades Veracruz in Mexico – US soldiers arrested
Food Administration – headed by Hoover
Fuel Administration – headed by Garfield – control fuel prices
Moral Diplomacy
1917: US enters WWI
Great Migration – blacks move from South to North – causes race riots – Harlem Renaissance – Garvey back to Africa movement
Creel Committee: Public Info. – spread propaganda – formed Liberty Leagues
National War Labor Board – Under Taft – prevented strikes
Espionage and Sedition Act.- suppress criticism, can’t interfere with draft
The Palmer Raids
Eighteenth Amendment is ratified prohibiting alcoholic beverages.
19th Amendment - Woman's sufferage •The Clayton Antitrust Act – amendment to Sherman Anti-Trust Act – strengthen anti-monopolistic reform The USS Lusitania is sunk by a German submarine WORLD WAR I Submarine warfare
Destroying trade
Violating rights
Espionage and sabotage
Zimmerman Note
Keep balance of power
Make world safe for democracy Pro War: Against War: "He Kept Us Out of War”
Only benefit the wealthy
British violated our rights too
Germany tried to avoid Lousitania
Propaganda Treaty of Versailles – Germany accepts full blame, demilitarize Rhineland, Ger. Looses all colonies Wilson's Fourteen Points. •No more secret treaties
•Freedom of the seas was to be maintained
•A removal of economic barriers among nations
•Reduction of armament burdens (reduce militarism)
•Adjustment of colonial claims in the interests of natives and colonizers
•“Self-determination,” or independence for oppressed minority groups who lived under the rule of others
•A League of Nations, an international organization that would keep the peace and settle world disputes Palmer Raids (Wilson) The Palmer Raids were attempts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists, from the United States. Shenck vs. US – “clear and present danger” – open opposition to war will undermine war effort Abrahms vs.US – upheld Sedition Act American Protective League – pro-war activists, prosecuted and censored Senate rejects Versailles Treaty and League of Nations Harding Revenue Act – decreases taxes
Washington Disarmament Conference – limit naval arms
Post War Depression
Immigration Act – restricts immigration
Teapot Dome Scandal – Sec. of Interior Fall sells oil reserves to private industry
DIES Coolidge McNary – Haugen Bill – vetoed – help farmers by buying surplus
Dawes Plan – helped Germany with reparation – provided loan
Peak of KKK
The Scopes "Monkey" Trial
Immigration Law
Kellog – Briand Pact: Peace alliance Hoover The Great Stock Market crash
Agricultural Market Act – establish Federal Farm Board – assistance to farmers
Tax Cut
Young Plan – reduced reparation payments, no longer involved in German economy
London Naval Treaty – decrease number of ships
Japan invades Manchuria
Stimson Doctrine
Federal Home Loan Bank Act – assist with mortgages
Public Works Project
The Reconstruction Finance Corporation – part of trickle down economics – lent money to banks
Bonus Army – marches on DC to receive veterans bonus – Hoover sends in troops The Great Stock Market Crash Causes:
Durable goods
Profits increase; wages stay same
Easy credit
Federal Reserve does nothing
Speculation and margin buying
Debt Franklin D. Roosevelt New Deal begins
20th Amendment –Presidential term starts on Jan. 20
NYE Investigation: determines cause of WWI
Share the Wealth society founded by Huey Long – called for distribution of wealth
Wagner Act: set up National Labor Relations Board
Fair Labor Standard Act – set min. wage and hours
CIO – Congress of Industrial Organization – labor union for skilled and semi-skilled
Social Security Acts – provided benefits to old and unemployed
1936- Won vs Alfred M. Landon
Court Packing Plan
Revenue Act – 1935 – tax the wealthy
Revenue Act of 1942 - effort to increase tax revenues to cover the cost of WWII New Deal: WPA – Works Progress Administration – employed artists, writers, photographers
CCC – Civilian Conservation Corps
NIRA- National Industrial Recovery Act – sets up
NRA – business men make codes for min wages, hr.
Glass Stegall Banking Act – kept us on gold standard – and created FDIC – against bank runs
SEC – Securities and Exchange Commission – watched market prices
AAA – Agricultural Adjustment Association – paid farmers not to overproduce
TVA – Tennessee Valley Authority – bring electricity – competes with private industry
CWA – Civil Works Administration
NYA – National Youth Administration
HOLC – Home Owners Loan Corp.
“Good Neighbor” Policy – Repudiated Roosevelt Corollary
Japan and Germany withdraw from League of Nations Indian Reorganization Act restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development. Schechter Poultry Corporation vs. US – NRA unconstitutional – put legislative power under executive administration Butler vs. US - AAA unconstitutional – put taxes on processing WORLD WAR II FDR
1st Neutrality Act – stop selling munitions to belligerents – Am. can’t travel on belligerent ships
2nd London Conference on disarmament
2nd Neutrality Act – no lending money to belligerent nations
3rd Neutrality Act: Cash n’ Carry (pay for it and transport it yourself) – doesn’t apply to Latin America and China Neutrality Quarantine Speech – isolate belligerent nations
Panay Incident- Japanese bomb Am. ship – U.S demands only apologies and reparations
Japan moves into East China – US does nothing
Selective Service – peace time draft
Destroyers for Bases Deal End of New Deal: Regulation of federal institutions
Benefits to labor
Help unemployed
Restored confidance For New Deal: Against New Deal: Socialistic program
Deficit spending
Gov’t competes with Private industry
Worthless – creates dependency •Smith Act – is a United States federal statute that set criminal penalties for advocating the overthrow of the U.S. government and required all non-citizen adult residents to register with the government. 1941: Japanese attack Pearl Harbor Lend Lease - lend materials for war US enters WWII.
Relocation Camps for Japanese
Office of Price Administration – seals prices, rations food
Casablanca Conference - FDR and Churchill met in Morocco to settle the future strategy of the Allies
Cairo Conference - conference of the Allied leaders to seek Japan's unconditional surrender.
Tehran Conference - FDR, Stalin, Churchill to discuss strategy against Germany Congress of Racial Equality – prevent segregation and discrimination GI Bill - benefits for veterans – money for education, mortgage – creates middle class D-Day – July 6, 1944 •1945: Yalta Conference – Allies meet to decide on final war plans
•Battle of Bulge – Last German offensive
•Okinawa - deadly military campaign on Pacific island
•US joins the United Nations
•Nationwide strikes due to inflation – OPA disbanded
A-Bomb dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Germany and Japan surrender ending World War II •Roosevelt dies – Truman VP •Potsdam Conference - Truman, Churchill, and Stalin meet in Germany to set up zones Kennan containment – prevent spread of communism
Churchill's "Iron Curton" speech in response to Russian aggression.
The Marshall Plan – economic aid to Europe after WWII Truman: Employment Act – goal to have full employment
Atomic Energy Act – establish Atomic Energy Commission – develop better bombs
President’s commission on Civil Rights – advocate rights
Desegregation of arms forces
Philippines get independence
Truman Doctrine – financial commitment to nations fighting Communism
Federal Employee Loyalty Program – anti-communistic oaths
National Security Act – created CIA
Jackie Robinson breaks color barrier
Election of 1848- Truman defeats Dewey and Thurman(DixiCrat)
Truman desegregates armed forces
Fair Deal: most don’t pass; Housing Act (construction increases); minimum wage increases
•MacArthur fired by Truman – invades China
Taft-Hartly - Mitigates effects of Unions OAS – Alliance of North America and South America Communism Communistic Victory in China
Russia’s 1st A-Bomb
Department of Defense created
West and East Germany created
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg (espionage) executed
Shah of Iran returns to power in coup – to keep Iran from going Communistic
Krushchev in control of Russia
Alger Hiss Case – convicted of purgery
Mao bombs Taiwan – Eisenhower threatens to send troops in and the A-bomb - brinkmanship
China bombs Taiwan – Eisenhower sends in troops – China backs off
Warsaw Pact: USSR and Eastern European allies unite to counter NATO
Domino Theory - if one country fell to Communism, it would undermine another that one would fall, producing a domino effect.
Russians launch Sputnik – space race
Cuban Revolution –Castro invades
U-2 incident – US spy plane goes down in USSR – convert operation discovered Korean War Begins •McCarren Internal Security Act – illegal to contribute to Communism•McCarthyism – fear of communism wide spread•National Security Council Memo 68 – beginning of massive defense spending Denis vs. United States - upheld Smith Act under “clear and present danger clause” •US – Japanese Treaty – bases in Japan Eisenhower Election of 1952: Eisenhower (Will end war) vs. Stevenson
Election of 1956: Eisenhower re-elected: ended Korean “War” and balanced budget (beat Stevenson again)
Interstate Highway Act - building federal roads; movement into rural area; creation of suburbs
Hungarian Revolution – rebel against Communism – US doesn’t support
US puts Diem in power in South Vietnam
Eisenhower Doctrine – extends to Truman Doctrine to Middle East – help fight Commies
Baby Boom peaks
Civil Rights Act- create permanent civil rights commission – supervise voting
Little Rock school desegregation
1st nuclear power plant
National Defense Education Act- funding to math, science, and language programs
Labor Reform Act – protect employees
Alaska and Hawaii admitted as states 1953: Terminate reservations for Native Americans •Armistice in Korea – 38th parallel Brown vs. Board of Education Overturns Plessy vs. Furguson decision Nuremberg trials SEATO Alliance Turkey, US, Iraq, and Iran •Fall of Dien Bien Phu – French loose in Vietnam Geneva Conference – reduction of nuclear weapons, divide Vietnam along 17th parallel Montgomery bus boycott begins – Rosa Parks
•AFL and the CIO merge Civil Rights Act – federal government registers black voters Kennedy Election 1960: Kennedy (Dem) defeats Nixon (Rep) – 1st TV debate
Kennedy assassinated by Oswald – Johnson becomes President •National Lieration Front – Viet Cong formed
1961: Bay of Pigs: attempt to overthrow Castro – fails
Trade Embargo on Cuba
Alliance for Progress - to build up Third World nations to the point where they could manage their own affairs.
Berlin wall built to stop crossing
Coup regime in Vietnam – Diem assassinated OPEC Cuban Missle Crisis – USSR sends missiles to Cuba – US removes missiles from Turkey and USSR from Cuba. Baker vs. Carr – end of gerrymandering – manipulating voting districts Engel v. Vitale - prayer in public schools were banned on violation the First Amendment. Johnson March on Washington: Martin Luther King Jr. I have a Dream Speech
24th Amendment – outlaws poll tax
Economic Opportunity Act: Job Core for youth training; Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA); Office of Economic Opportunity – establish Equal Opportunity Laws
Civil Rights Act: NO SEGREGATION
Tax reduction
Great Society: 5 P's
Medicare and Medicaid
Higher Education Act
Watts, Detroit race riots - army sent in
Department of Housing and Urban Development established
Department of Transportation created
National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act
25th Amendment – Allowed VP who becomes Pres. to pick a new VP Vietnam War US enters Vietnam War - Tonkin Gulf – 1 bullet fired at US ship causes war:
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution - Johnson can police Vietnam
War Powers Act – restrained president’s ability to commit troops overseas
Vietnamization begins – war extends (NIXON)•TET – Viet Cong attacks during Vietnamese holiday
War extended to Laos and Cambodia
Vietnamization begins – slow withdrawal of troops from Vietnam
Nixon Doctrine – reducing number of troops abroad by helping nations economically and militarily
U.S. bombed North Vietnamese positions in Cambodia and Laos. Technically illegal because Cambodia and Laos were neutral
Treaty of Paris: Ends Vietnam – troops withdrawn – Vietnam temp. divided again Miranda vs. Arizona –the accused must be read his/her rights Nixon Election of 1968
Armstrong walks on the moon
Nixon's "New Federalism" - returning power to the states
Civil Rights Act - attempted to provide Blacks with equal-opportunity housing
Warren E. Burger appointed - a conservative to fill Earl Warren's liberal spot.
Desegregation – kids bused into black/white schools
New Economic Policy: wage and price to curb inflation
Election of 1972: Nixon re-elected defeating McGovern
Watergate Scandal begins
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
VP Agnue resigns: Ford replaces him
Nixon resigns Reed vs. Reed outlawed sexual discrimination Nixon visits Red China and Russia: eases tensions
SALT1: Nuclear arms limitation agreement Gideon vs. Wainwright court decided that state and local courts must provide counsel for defendants in felony cases Roe vs. Wade restricting abortion is unconstitutional Ford Ford pardons Nixon Vietnam becomes Communistic
Kaher roge – ruthless regime established in Cambodia
US ship Mayaquez attacked by Cambodia
South Vietnam becomes Communist Carter Election of 1975: Carter defeats Ford
US gives up rights to Panama Canal in 1999China and US agree to establish diplomatic relations
Create Department of Energy and Department of Education
Fuel shortage
Camp David Accords: Peace between Israel and Egypt
Shah expelled from Iran: American embassy taken hostage: Carter’s rescue mission fails
Three Mile Island - power plant failure emits radiation in Pennsylvania REAGAN Election of 1980: Reagan wins with his “Reaganomics” program of reducing taxes and spending
Iran hostages released
Olympic Boycott
Air Traffic Controllers Strike
Assassination attempt on Reagan
Economic Recovery Tax Bill
Sandra Day O'Connor
Taxes increase Communism: Military invasion of Grenada (Caribbean island) to stop Communism
American peacekeeping force in Lebanon attacked by terrorists - 241 dead
US bombs terrorist targets in Libya
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty) limiting intermediate-range nuclear missiles with Russia George H. Bush: Was vice president to Reagan
Beat democrat Michael Dukakis
Americans with Disabilities Act Communism: In 1989, Democracy was reviving in previously Communist hot-spots
SALT II - Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty with Russia (Carter) Operation Desert Storm Clinton: Controversial cabinet nominations
Failure to lift ban on gays in military
Scandals in White House (Travelgate)
Connection to failed real estate deal in Arkansas (Whitewater)—“Slick Willie”
Bombing of Muir Federal Building in Oklahoma City
Bombing of the World Trade Center
Family and Medical Leave Act—1993
Motor-voter registration with driver’s license
Brady-Handgun bill•Anti-Crime Bill
World Trade Organization (1994)
1996 Election: Clinton-Gore ticket
Longest peacetime era of economic expansion
Madeleine Albright
Investigations and Impeachment (1998) - Was not found guilty George W. Bush Won electoral college against Al Gore, did not win popular vote
Republican Tax Cut
Education Reform (NCLB)
Recession 2001
Corporate corruption - SEC
September 11, 2001
War on Terrorism—post 9/11 (ISRAEL VS PALESTINE)
Homeland security - Patriot Act
War in Iraq
Wins in 2004 Election vs John Kerry and John Edwards Bush v Gore Supreme Court’s split 5-4 decision made Bush president by deciding that varying standards of Florida hand count violated equal protection clause of 14th Amendment Imperialism
Network of alliances Cant Scream Fire in a Crowded Movie Theater Republican stuyvesant - built NY Head Right System: Purchase alot of land for cheap if you enouraged people to mov Scopes “Monkey Trial Immigration Act of 1924; it cut the quota down to 2% and the origins base was shifted to that of 1890 Emergency Quota Act of 1921, in which newcomers from Europe were restricted at any year to a quota (set amount) In the case of Adkins v. Children’s Hospital, the court reversed its ruling in the Muller v. Oregon case by invalidating a minimum wage law for women
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