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Genetic Engineering

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Cora Barhorst

on 25 April 2016

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Transcript of Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering
is the deliberate manipulation of genetic material.
Other names are genetic modification, genetic manipulation, bio genetics, and gene splicing
is the study of the moral implications of medical procedures.
In Vitro
In 2012, 165,172 procedures of in vitro were performed resulting in the birth of only 61,172 children

Cancer Research
64% of research using gene therapy is focused on cancer diseases
Important Topics we will cover
Genetic Engineering
Hero of the Cause
Dr. Raymond Bohlin
Views science from Christian perspective
Explains about how we are stewards of God's creation
Explains how we need to use the power of genetic engineering for good and not bad.
Closing the Gap
Current Condition
Not enough restrictions
Many people are undecided
Ideal Situation
Restrictions upon research and cloning
Closing the Gap
More awareness and well informed opinions
How to make a change?
Genetic Engineering
Recombinant DNA
In Vitro
Gene Therapy
Gene Enhancement
Stem Cell Research
Future generations
Scientist and researchers
Those receiving the treatment
Who is involved?
Who is the most helpful to consult?
Doctors and Scientists who have been tasked with finding alternatives
Activists and Religious

In Vitro:
Women may not have another option for childbirth
Gene Therapy:
Affects the individual and future generations
Could be beneficial for curing illnesses, but it is drastic and rarely successful.
Impact on those deemed to have undesirable traits

Dignitas Personae

Cora Barhorst, Jaci Borne, Alana Polozola, and Renee Trepagnier
"Instruction on Certain Bioethical Questions"
Sacred Scriptures
Themes of Catholic Social Teachings
Life and Dignity of the Human Person
Call to Family, Community, and Participation
Rights and Responsibilities
Care for God's Creation
Specific Church Stance
CCC 2294
"Science and technology by their very nature require
unconditional respect
for fundamental moral criteria. They must be at the service of the human person, of his inalienable rights, of his true and integral good, in conformity with the plan and the will of God."

Recombinant DNA Technology: replicates genes and transfers to organisms
Therapeutic Cloning: Creates embryos for stem cells.
Reproductive Cloning: embryo is cloned and placed in uterus to grow
Pros and Cons

Cure illnesses
Mutations eliminated
Save endangered species
Replace dead child/animal
Rarely successful
Create defects
Affect biodiversity
Selection of desired human traits to create improved generations
Proposed by Francis Galton
Later, Lewis Terman used intelligence test to determine who had good characteristics.
Eugenics in History
Hitler's idea to create the "Master Race" followed eugenic ideals.

Modern Eugenics
The belief is that couples should get screening and end pregnancy if there are defects
Couples should get sterilized if they have a defective genes
Pros and Cons

Stops genetic disorders
Stronger and more intelligent generation

Risks individuality
Many could be discriminated against or even killed for not having desirable traits
"If we are to play God in the sense of imitating Him as we apply the truth of being created in His image and in exercising our appointment as stewards over all He has made, then we need to do so with humility and compassion."
His Thoughts

Genetic engineering seeks to help relieve suffering, like Jesus
Humans are supposed to be stewards of God's creation
In Vitro
First developed in Great Britain
Simply put, the egg is fertilized outside of the body
Success Rates

Success rates vary from many factors: mostly from age of mother
Fresh embryos vary from 40.5% to 4.5%
Frozen vary from 42% to 18.3%
Gene Enhancement
Transfer of genetic material intended to modify non-pathological traits
Optimizes the attributes or capabilities
Attempted to improve traits such as:
growth rate
muscle mass
Looking toward possibility of more human applications
Pros and Cons
Can help cure illnesses and create medicine

It crosses the line from curing sickness to creating stronger humans
Disrupts natural order of life and biodiversity
Basic Steps
1. Monitor development of eggs in uterus
2. Collect eggs from uterus
3. Secure the sperm
4. Combine eggs and sperm in lab and provide appropriate environment
5. Transfer embryos in uterus
Pros and Cons

Gives infertile couples a chance

Egg retrieval creates a risk of infection and damage
Possibilities of multiple pregnancies
cause premature delivery
increases risk of low birth weight
1 Corinthians 6: 19-20
"Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within you, whom you have from God, and that you are not your own. For you have been purchased at a price. Therefore, glorify God in your body."
1 Corinthians 15: 38
"But God gives it a body as he chooses, and to each kind of seed its own body."
Jeremiah 1:5
"Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, before you were born I set you apart; I appointed you as a prophet to the nations."

CCC 2295
"Experimentation on human beings is not morally legitimate if it exposes the subject's life or physical and psychological integrity to disproportionate or avoidable risks."
Published September 8, 2008
Published by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Approved by Pope Benedict XVI
"The Church, be expressing an ethical judgment on some developments of recent medical research concerning man and his beginnings, does not intervene in the area proper to medical science itself, but rather calls everyone to ethical and social responsibility for their actions" (Dignitas Personae).
Genetically Engineered Food
Gene Therapy
In Vitro
Try through natural pregnancy
Artificial insemination
Better farming techniques
Selective Breeding
Traditional methods and procedures
In General
Alternatives to genetic engineering are supported by the church.
The church states that cloning is always wrong even if it is used to help those who are sick.
"Playing God"
"Genetic science may give us the illusion of power,
but we are not gods
. We are not our own, or anyone else's creator. Not, for our own safety, should we ever seek to be" (Living the Gospel of Life: A Challenge to American Catholics).
Selective Breeding
In Vitro
The church does not accept In Vitro because of the number of embryos discarded after the procedure.
Food Processing
Pros and Cons
Gene Therapy
Somatic vs. Germline
Pros and Cons
Quote from "Bishop Wilton D. Gregory"
"The cloning procedure is so
dehumanizing that some scientists want to treat the resulting human beings as subhuman,
creating them solely so they can destroy them for their cells and tissues."
Replace defective cells
Eradicates disease
Modify human capabilities
Damage gene pool
Rise in disorders
Modifying crops to fit consumer's needs
Breed plants together that have the best qualities
Targeting specific traits in order to produce a better crop yield
The traditional method for improving crops and livestock
Free process
Increase in crop production
No safety issues
Definite product
At risk of diseases
Reduces genetic diversity
Removes differences of the organism
Affects one individual person
Targeted cells are the only ones affected
transfer of healthy genes into an area with unhealthy or mutated genes to fix genetic disorders
Dignitas Personae states that the Church is against gene therapy to improve humans, yet certain types that involve treating illnesses are accepted.
Human Gene Enhancement
Genetic Enhancement
Change of lifestyle to achieve a different physical appearance
Allow natural selection to take its course
Therapeutic cloning:
Find stem cells from other sources
Reprogram cells

Selective Breeding
Traditional Treatments
Natural Pregnancy
Physical: lots of wear and tear on the body
Emotional: loosing children can be very draining for a couple
Spiritual: Can grow closer to the faith if they are relying on God to provide
Physical: very expensive but, so is in vitro
Emotional: you will have given a child in need a better life
Spiritual: you may grow closer in your faith because you were meant to get this child
Other source
of stem cells
Artificial Insemination
Physical: saves embryos, harder to obtain
Emotional: happy with of knowledge of saving life
Spiritual: Grow in faith
Physical: less intrusive of a procedure than IVF
Emotional: you do not need a male to have a child if you are a single woman
Accept Your Body
Reprogram Cells
Physical: your body would not change and the child would have whatever genetics that were intended
Spiritual: parent could grow closer in the faith and learn that God intended them to be happy
Change Cosmetic
More time and research
Bodies have harder time adapting
Human life not destroyed
More procedures for patients
Scientists may feel pressured
Physical: Expensive alternative to an expensive medical procedure.
Emotional: The child may start to become more like an object in your eyes.
Spiritual: loose respect for their dignity
Physical: More time needed
Spiritual: Strengthen of faith through trust
Acts of Justice:
Publicize laws and bills
Develop more technology
Acts of Mercy
Spread awareness
Support groups
Physical: longer time for desired outcome, but safer.
Emotional: prolonged stress
Physical: Medical procedures are expensive
Emotional: stress
Spiritual: faith may strengthen or decay
Gene Therapy

Changes made to sperm or egg cells
Affects the individual and future offspring
Physical: Costly and difficult to operate
Emotional: sense of accomplishment with crops you grew yourself
Better Farming Techniques
Physical: expensive and most medications have side effects
Emotional: it may cause tension in family
Spiritual: faith may grow or decline
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