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The Nut Case!

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Anne Pelletier

on 20 March 2015

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Transcript of The Nut Case!

The Bike Helmet
In 2009, over 11.4 million people over the age of 11 reported bicycling according to the Canadian Community Health Survey. Only 36.5% of those people reported wearing a helmet while bicycling at all times. You could suffer from severe head injuries from a crash on your bike if you're not wearing a helmet. These injuries would be considerably less painful if you were wearing one.
Percentage of people wearing bike helmets categorized by age and gender
There are three main parts to a bike helmet; the liner, the shell and the strap.
The liner is the inner foam part of the helmet. It has a major impact-absorbing element to it. It is usually made of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), which is exactly what it sounds like - expanded polystyrene beads. Polystyrene is mainly made of styrene which is derived from either petroleum or natural gas. It is formed from a chemical reaction between benzene and ethylene. EPS is usually made in China but there are also some European manufacturers and one in the United States of America.
The second part of a helmet is the shell. This hard outer part is meant to spread out the force of impact over a larger area so that your skull is less likely to fracture. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is the material most commonly used as a shell but it is more famously used for water bottles. PET is made of polyester.
Petroleum is mainly produced in Russia, Saudi Arabia, United States, China and Canada. It too is a hydrocarbon. It also sometimes contains sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen. Petroleum is used to make almost everything we use including plastic. This substance is a fossil fuel too. When it's found on the earth, it is known as crude oil which is then refined to make petroleum.
Polyester is a manufactured product that is made of synthesized polymers. It is made by mixing ethylene glycol and dimethyl terephthalate together. Polyester is used to make mostly clothing . The majority of polyester is produced in China but it is also produced in Taiwan, South Korea, U.S.A., India and Indonesia.
Natural Gas
Natural gas is a hydrocarbon, meaning it is made up of hydrogen and carbon compounds. It is also a fossil fuel, meaning it is made from the remains of living organisms, and is found in reservoirs beneath the surface of the earth. The top five natural gas producing countries in the world are the United States of America, Russia, Canada, Iran and Norway.
The last part of a bike helmet is the strap. It is usually made of nylon or polypropylene. Attached to the strap is the buckle which is usually made of plastic. The plastic is made of acetal, polypropylene and nylon. Both essential parts of the helmet are used to secure the helmet on your head.
Nylon is a plastic and also a member of the polymer family. It is formed by reacting equal parts of diamine and dicarboxylic acid. Nylon is used for most things in our everyday life for example: your toothbrush, your coat, your rug or carpet and your umbrella. China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea and the U.S.A. are the main producers.
Polypropylene is also a plastic polymer. It is also a hydrocarbon, used mostly for microwaveable food containers . The U.S.A., Germany, Japan, Thailand and China are the main producers of this plastic.

Acetal, also know as polyoxymethylene, is a thermoplastic polymer. It is made through the polymerization of formaldehyde. Many different companies make this polymer, sometimes with slightly different formulas. The main manufacturing companies are Delrin, Celcon, Ramtal, Duracon, Kepital and Hostaform. Most have factories in Canada.
Non-Renewable Resources
Non-renewable resources are resources that come from the earth and can't be replaced as fast as humans are using them. This means that we will eventually run out of these materials. The most common non-renewable resources are coal, petroleum and fossil fuels. All of the mentioned materials in this presentation are also non-renewable resources. We must find alternatives to these resources soon before we run out of them.
Thanks For Watching!
When oil is comes out of the ground it is known as crude oil or unprocessed oil. It is then taken to a refinery where it is made into useful substances. To do this they heat up the oil and then when it vaporizes, they condense the vapor. Other substances are then added to get the desired product.
How Oil is Refined
By: Anne Pelletier
Full transcript