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Transcript of Aggression
•Describe the nature of aggression and assertion;
•Define channelled aggression;
•Explain the causes of aggressive behaviour;
•Evaluate critically theories of aggression (instinct theories; frustration-aggression hypothesis; aggressive-cue hypothesis (Berkowitz); social learning theories);
•Describe methods of eliminating aggressive tendencies of performers and explain the effects of these methods on the adoption of active and healthy lifestyles
Aggression and its impact upon performance and behaviour
The term aggression is used to describe forceful behaviour in sport.
Two definitions of aggression given by Baron and Bull are:
'Aggression is any behaviour that is intended to harm another individual by physical or verbal means' (Bull, 1990)
'Aggression is any form of behaviour directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment' (Baron)
To understand the term it is necessary to divide aggression into two categories:
1. Hostile aggression
2. Assertive behaviour (often referred to as channelled aggression)
Aggression Vs Assertion
Hostile aggression: is often referred to as hostile aggression if it is defined as deliberate intention to harm or injure another person. Hostile aggression breaks the rules of the game, e.g. deliberate high tackle in rugby.
What other examples are there?
Channelled aggression (assertion): involves robust play which is directed towards completing the skill successfully and is not primarily involved with inflicting injury e.g. a legitimate tackle in rugby
What are the causes or antecendents (prior event which can lead to aggression) of aggressive behaviour?
There are also 4 key theories behind aggression:
Instinct, Social learning, frustration aggression hypothesis and aggression cue hypothesis
Instinct and Social Learning Theory
Instinct theory: Freud (1920) initially proposed instinct theory. This is a trait view of behaviour and therefore displays the drawbacks of this perspective, most notably that behaviour is at all times predictable. Instinct theory proposes that aggression is genetically inherited and that a trait of violence lies within everyone.
Social learning theory: Bandura (1966). This theory associates with the view that all behaviour is learned. Aggression is not a genetically-based innate characteristic but is nurtured through enviornmental forces. Aggression can, therefore, be learned by watching and copying from role models and becomes an accepted mode of behaviour if it is reinforced.
Frustration aggression hypothesis
Aggression cue hypothesis
Elimination of aggression
There are a number of methods to eliminate aggression and these come under two headings:
1. Cognitive techniques: which relate to mental or psychological processes or strategies to eliminate aggression
2. Somatic techniques: which involve physiological strategies, such as increases in breathing rate, heart rate and sweating
How would you remove aggression or aggressive behaviour or acts?
Elimination of Aggression
Cognitive strategies: Imagery which focuses on achieving a calm state of mind. Positive self-talk and concentrating on repeated words or phrases can also lower an inclination to be aggressive. Counting to ten. Walking away from a situation. Reasoning with oneself that aggression is wrong and that punishment is the likely result.
Somatic strategies: Mostly include relaxation techniques and breathing exercises. Biofeedback, a stress management technique that uses electronic instruments to measure physiological reactions to stress, such as increased heart rate. By observing traces that indicate increasing heart rate it may be possible to control this changing state. Emphasis on non aggressive role models to ensure a desirable S-R learning bond is strengthened.
Aggression is viewed by many as a negative response in sport but theories of why aggression occurs contradict each other.
Evaluate critically theories of aggression that seek to explain why negative responses often occur in sporting situations. Use practical examples for the theories you evaluate.