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Section 10.2: Islam Expands
Transcript of Section 10.2: Islam Expands
Treatment of Conquered Peoples
People were never forced into Islam. They could practice their own religions freely.
Christians & Jews = "People of the Book"
Paid taxes? No military for you!
They could become officials, scholars & work in the government
Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis
Uthman ibn Affan died in 656
Many groups struggled for power
Ali ibn Abi Taleb
Muawiya ibn Sufyan (governor/ruler of Syria)
When Ali died in 661, the "Caliph System" died with him
Powerful family that came to power after Ali
Moved the Muslim capital to Damascus
Abandoned the simple lives of the Caliphs
Went back to wealth & luxury
Prophet Muhammad's Successors Spread Islam
"Rightly Guided" Caliphs - Caliphate
Abu Bakr & those who rebelled
Reasons for success?
1) Strength of Muslim armies
2) Weakness of surrounding empires
3) People welcomed the Muslims
-They were persecuted for not following religions of Byzantine & Sassanid Empires
- Attracted by Islam's message
-Liked that they would not have to pay taxes
"In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful, this is what Khalid ibn al-Walid would grant to the inhabitants of Damascus...
He promises to give them security for their lives, property & churches. Their city walls shall not be demolished, neither shall any Muslim be quartered in their houses.
Thereunto, we give to them the pact of Allah & the protection of His Prophet, the Caliphs & the believers. So long as the pay the tax, nothing but good shall befall them."
-Khalid ibn Al-Walid
The Sunna-Shia Split
Majority of Muslims wanted the Umayyads to rule. But a minority did not.
This group thought the ruler of the Muslims should be a descendant of the Prophet.
"Sunni" = Sunnah (followers of Muhammad's example)
"Shia" = The 'party' of Ali
The Sunni & Shia Today
Book page 271 [YES YOU CAN SHARE!]
Fall of the Umayyads & Rise of the Abbasids
A lot of opposition to the Umayyads.
Rebel groups overthrew them in 750 AD
Most powerful = the Abbasids
First thing they did when they came to power: murdered the rest of the Umayyad family.
One prince escaped.
Prince Abdel Rahman I
Moved capital in 762 to Baghdad
Good location for:
information from across the empire
Abbasid Empire (750 to 1258)
-Could not control all of that large territory
-Independent Muslim states started forming
-One of them: The Fatimid Caliphate
Three Things You Should Know About The Fatimids
1. They were Shia
3. They built...