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Palestinian-Israeli Conflict

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Hatem Hadi

on 4 July 2014

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Transcript of Palestinian-Israeli Conflict

The Palestinian-Israeli Struggle:
From 1050 BC - 20??
History of Palestine's Land
-The Canaanites (Al-Kana'aneyoon) are the earliest known inhabitants of Palestine.
-The Israelites (Early Jews) seized Palestine and sought control over Palestine from the Canaanites.
-King David (Dawood) became king of The Kingdom of Israel
-King Solomon (Solayman), heir to the thrown, became king and built the First Temple. The First Temple was destroyed by the Persian emperor.
-The Second Temple was built on location of the First Temple, but was also destroyed by the Romans.
-A Third Temple was built, but was also destroyed. The Kingdom of Israel was renamed Palestine.
-After Salaheldin took power over Palestine, Jews, Muslims, and Christians lived peacefully together.
Zionism & The First
Zion Conference
Zionism (n): a belief that was started in the late 19th century by Theodore Herzl claiming Palestine to be the Jewish homeland. Zionism is an extremist belief that urges the return to the Jewish homeland, Zion, or Jerusalem for its religious and historical significance.

-Theodore Herzl was an Austrian Jew who created the ideal that is Zionism.
-The First Zionist Conference was held in Switzerland in 1897 and officially announced Zionism's goal of establishing a legal home for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel (also known as modern-day Palestine). These early Zionists
committed themselves to a return to their ancient homeland.
-Zionism existed before WWI.
Control Over Palestine
-In 1916, the Sykes-Picot agreement was signed by France
and Great Britain dividing the Ottoman Empire into different colonies. Palestine was assigned to Great Britain.
-Prior to WWI, Jewish immigrants were migrating from all over the world to Palestine to escape persecution.
-Palestine became a mandate under British rule after WWI.
an official order or commission to do something
-Mandate: an official order or commission to do something
-The British divided this region in two: east of the Jordan River to be ruled by King Abdullah, and west of the Jordan River became the Palestine Mandate.
The First Intifada
-After Israel's capture of the West Bank, East Jerusalem, Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip from Jordan and Egypt in the Six-Day War in 1967, frustration grew among Palestinians in the Israeli-occupied territories.

-The "Iron Fist" policy of cracking down on Palestinian nationalism began by Israel in 1985. This was accompanied by economic integration and increasing Israeli settlements such that the Jewish settler population in the West Bank alone nearly doubled from 35,000 in 1984 to 64,000 in 1988, reaching 130,000 by the mid nineties.

-Palestinians and their supporters regard the Intifada as a protest against Israeli repression including extrajudicial killings, mass detentions, house demolitions, deportations, etc.

-Palestinians attacked Israelis with improvised weapons and firearms supplied by the PLO, which organized much of the uprising. Suicide attacks against civilians in Israel began were carried out as well.

-The Israeli army killed more than 1,000 Palestinians in the first intifada.

-This conflict continued until the Oslo Accords were signed in 1993.
WWII and the Holocaust
-Before WWII, Adolf Hitler had control over Germany.
-Adolf Hitler was the founder of the ideology known as Nazism.
-Nazism was based on an idea that a certain race was better than all others. According to the racist ideas of Nazism, the Jews, Slavs and Gypsies were called "inferior races.
-As a result, Hitler murdered 6 million people who were not "ideal" in his eyes.
-He sent them to concentration camps, tortured, and murdered people; specifically Jews.
-To escape persecution, Jews escaped Europe and fled to countries around the world -- including Palestine.
-At this point in time, the Jews became a part of a diaspora.
Post-Holocaust & 1945-1948
-According to the Balfour Declaration, Jewish immigrants were allowed to utilize any unoccupied land that was inhabited by Palestinians; a rule which they went by for a while until they began using other means to attain Palestinian land such as purchasing land and by taking it by force. The Jews continued this illegal occupation of Palestine and slowly encroached onto other Palestinian lands claiming it their own.
-By1946, 608,000 Jews resided within the borders of Mandate Palestine. Jews had acquired by purchase 6 to 8 percent of the total land area of Palestine which is equal to about 20 percent of the inhabitable land.

-On November 29, 1947, the UN General Assembly voted on UN Resolution 181 to partition Palestine into two states, one Jewish and the other Arab. Some Jewish settlements would fall within the proposed Palestinian state and many Palestinians would become part of the proposed Jewish state. The territory designated to the Jewish state would be slightly larger than the Palestinian state on the assumption that increasing numbers of Jews would immigrate there. According to the UN partition plan, the area of Jerusalem and Bethlehem was to become an international zone.
-The Palestinian representation (in and out of Palestine) opposed partition and claimed all of Palestine to be Palestinian land. The Arabs argued that it violated the rights of the Palestinian people by allocating more land to the Jews than the Palestinians despite their size.
-The 1947 UN Partition Plan was to allocate 56% of the land to the Jews and 42% to the Palestinians; a partition the Palestinians rejected primarily because of the inconsistent people to land ratio.
-Despite the Palestinian's rejection of the partition plan, the Jews went on to establish the state of Israel in 1948.
The Balfour Declaration
-As a result of WWI, Great Britain took over the Mandate of Palestine.
-In1917, the British Foreign Minister, Lord Arthur Balfour, issued the Balfour Declaration announcing his government's support for the establishment of "a Jewish national home in Palestine."
-The declaration stated that the immigrant Jews to Palestine were allowed to utilize any unoccupied or uninhabited land that was not going to deter day-to-day Palestinian life.
--1918-1948: Jews migrated to Palestine as "refugees"
-At the beginning, some Palestinians sold their homes in return for money. But as soon as the Jews began receiving military aid from the US, the Jews began taking land by force leaving thousands of Palestinians homeless.
-These refugees either stayed and became Arab-Israelis after the establishment of Israel or fled to neighboring Arab countries.
The 1948 War
-Prior to the 1948 war, neighboring Arab countries gathered and formed the Arab League.
Establishment of Israel
-On May 14, 1948, on the day in which the British Mandate over Palestine
expired, the Jewish People's Council approved a proclamation which declared
the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretzy Israel (or Israel), to be known as
the State of Israel.
-There were no mention of the borders of the new state other than that it was
in Eretz Yisrael.
-In an official statement from the Secretary-General of the League of Arab
States to the UN Secretary-General on May 15, 1948, the Arab stated publicly
that Arab Governments found themselves compelled to intervene for the sole
purpose of restoring peace and security and establishing law and order in
Palestine.
-On the day of the establishment of Israel, the armies of Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq invaded/intervened in what had just ceased to be the British Mandate, marking the beginning of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
-The Israeli Defense Force fought the Arab League nations from part of the occupied territories, extending its borders beyond the original partition.
-By December 1948, Israel controlled most of the portion of Mandate Palestine west of the Jordan River. The remainder of the Mandate consisted of Jordan, the area that came to be called the West Bank (controlled by Jordan), and the Gaza Strip (controlled by Egypt).
-Prior to and during this conflict, 713,000 Palestinian Arabs fled their original lands to become Palestinian refugees, in part, due to an alleged promise from Arab leaders that they would be able to return when the war had been won. These refugees became to be known as "Arab-Israelis"
-Many Palestinians fled from the areas that are now present-day Israel as a response to alleged massacres of Arab towns like the Deir Yassin massacre
-The War came to an end with the signing of the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and each of its Arab neighbors. Jordan occupied East Jerusalem and the West Bank. Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip.
- The 1949 Armistice Agreements led to the signing of the Tripartite Declaration by the US, Britain and France, in which they pledged to prevent violations of the armistice lines and maintaining peace and stability in the area
***The Palestinian Arab state envisioned by the UN partition plan was never established.
The Six Day War of 1967
-Although Israel and its neighboring Arab countries signed the Armistice of 1949, the region was continuously unstable.
-In 1956, Israel joined with Britain and France to attack Egypt ultimately to reverse the Egyptian government's nationalization of the Suez Canal. Israeli forces captured Gaza and the Sinai Peninsula, but were forced to evacuate back to the armistice lines as a result of UN pressure led by the US and the Soviet Union.
-Syrian-Israeli ties were weakened and Egypt's assistance was requested. Responding to a Syrian request for assistance, in May 1967 Egyptian troops entered the Sinai Peninsula bordering Israel.
-A few days later, the Egyptians then occupied Sharm al-Shaykh at the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula and proclaimed a blockade of the Israeli port of Eilat on the Gulf of Aqaba, arguing that access to Eilat was through Egyptian territorial waters.
-Israel attacked Egypt and Syria, destroying their air forces on the ground within a few hours. Jordan joined in the fighting and was consequently attacked by Israel as well.
-In just six days, Israel captured the West Bank from Jordan, the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, and the Golan Heights from Syria.
-After Israel's capture of the West Bank, East Jerusalem, Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip from Jordan and Egypt in the Six-Day War in 1967, frustration grew among Palestinians in the Israeli-occupied territories.
-The "Iron Fist" policy of cracking down on Palestinian nationalism began by Israel in 1985. This was accompanied by economic integration and increasing Israeli settlements such that the Jewish settler population in the West Bank alone nearly doubled from 35,000 in 1984 to 64,000 in 1988, reaching 130,000 by the mid nineties.
-Palestinians and their supporters regard the Intifada as a protest against Israeli repression including extrajudicial killings, mass detentions, house demolitions, deportations, etc.
-Palestinians attacked Israelis with improvised weapons and firearms supplied by the PLO, which organized much of the uprising. Suicide attacks against civilians in Israel began were carried out as well.
- The Israeli army killed more than 1,000 Palestinians in the first intifada.
The First Intifada (1987-1993)
- The Oslo Accords were a set of agreements that began in 1993 when Israel and the PLO signed a Declaration of Principles (DOP).
- The Oslo Accords led to the creation of the Palestinian Authority, which had responsibility for administering the territory under its control.
- It also called on Israel to gradually withdraw its military presence from the Gaza Strip and a small area around Jericho. It left Israel the right to defend itself and its citizens, including those in the territories.
- Along with the DOP, Israel and the PLO exchanged Letters of Mutual Recognition. For the first time the PLO formally recognized Israel, renounced violence, and publicly expressed acceptance of peaceful coexistence with Israel.
-Also, for the first time Israel formally recognized the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people.
-The Oslo Accords were intended to be an interim agreement that would lead to a permanent settlement with Israel giving up land in return for peace and security.
- Both Israelis and Palestinians accuse the other of not fulfilling their obligations.
The Oslo Accords (1993)
-Following the Camp David Accords of 1978, and after intense diplomatic efforts by the United States, Egypt signed a Peace treaty with Israel in March, 1979.

Under its terms, Sinai returned to Egyptian hands, while the Gaza strip remained under Israeli control to be included in a future Palestinian state.

The agreement also provided for the normalization of relations between the two countries, as well as, free passage of Israeli ships through the Suez Canal, and the recognition of the strait of Tiran and Gulf of Aqaba as international waterways.

Egypt’s President, Anwar Sadat realized that a continuing state of war with Israel was harming the Egyptian economy and the well-being of his people. Sadat faced criticism from the Arab Countries, and was cursed a traitor.

This agreement became a model for Israel’s “land for peace” policy.
Egypt & Israel sign a Peace Agreement (1979)
-As with the 1979 peace treaty between Egypt and Israel, the United States led a difficult but successful diplomatic process to help Jordan and Israel achieve peace.

In 1994, Jordan became the second Arab country to recognize Israel. Trade, business relations, tourism, cultural exchanges, and scientific cooperation between the two nations have increased since the agreement was signed, but at a slower pace than hoped for initially.
Jordan follows in Egypt's footsteps (1994)
-President Clinton announced his invitation to Ehud Barak and Yasser Arafat on 5 July 2000, to come to Camp David to continue their negotiations on the Middle East peace process.
-There was a hopeful precedent in the 1978 Camp David Accords where President Jimmy Carter was able to broker a peace agreement between Egypt and Israel.
-It was the first major attempt to negotiate a comprehensive final status agreement between Israel and the Palestinians.

Why did the negotiations fail?
-The negotiations were based on an all or nothing approach, such that nothing was considered agreed and binding until everything was agreed.
-No agreement was reached; there is no official written record of the proposals so some ambiguity remains over details of the positions of the parties on specific issues such as:

•Territory
•Jerusalem and the Temple Mount
•Security Arrangements
•Settlements
The Camp David Summit (2000)
-Also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada.
-Ariel Sharon Visits the Temple Mount/ Al-Aqsa.
-The Palestinians condemned Sharon's visit to the Temple Mount as a provocation and an incursion, as were his armed bodyguards that arrived on the scene with him. Critics claim that Sharon knew that the visit could trigger violence, and that the purpose of his visit was political.
-The day after Sharon's visit, riots broke out around the city of Old Jerusalem the days that followed, demonstrations erupted all over the West Bank and Gaza. Israeli police responded with live fire and rubber-coated steel bullets.
-During the first weeks of the Intifada the ratio of Palestinians killed to Israelis was 20:1. According to Amnesty international the early Palestinian casualties were those taking part in demonstrations or bystanders. Amnesty further states that approximately 80% of the Palestinians killed during the first month were in demonstrations where Israeli security services lives were not in danger.
-There is no definitive event marking the end of the Second Intifada. Many people suggest late 2004 or early 2005. Others argue it never stopped.

-Casualties:
The Second Intifada (2000-?)
-In 2002, Israel decided to build a security barrier that would separate its citizens from terrorist groups in the West Bank.
-The barrier is built mainly in the West Bank and partly along the 1949 Armistice line, or "Green Line" between Israel and Palestinian West Bank. 12% of the West Bank area is on the Israel side of the barrier.
-Supporters argue that the barrier is necessary to protect Israeli civilians from Palestinian terrorism, including the suicide bombing attacks that increased significantly during the Second Intifada. They also claim that the barrier is temporary and can be removed in the context of "true peace", but that lives lost to terrorism cannot be brought back.
-Opponents of the barrier, however, object that the route substantially deviates from the Green Line into the occupied territories captured by Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967. They argue that the barrier is an illegal attempt to annex Palestinian land under the disguise of security, violates international law, has the effect of undermining negotiations (by establishing new borders), and severely restricts Palestinians who live nearby, particularly their ability to travel freely within the West Bank and to access work in Israel.
Israel constructs Security Barrier
- In March 2002, during the Beirut Summit of the Arab League, crown prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia proposed a peace initiative that was endorsed by all members of the Arab League.

-The proposal offered Israel peace in return for:
•Israeli withdrawal from all territories captured in the 1967 War.
•Recognition of an independent Palestine, with East Jerusalem as its capital.
• A “just solution” for Palestinian refugees.

- The Arab League endorsed the proposal again at the Riyadh Summit in 2007. The proposal is viewed by some as a major breakthrough because previously most Arab nations had ruled out peace, recognition, and even negotiations with Israel.

- Israel has welcomed the proposal, but does not accept all of its demands.
The Arab Peace Initiative (2002)
The Roadmap for Peace (2003)
- The Roadmap for Peace, known as the Roadmap, is a plan for peace that was proposed in 2003 by the “Quartet:” the United States, Russia, the European Union, and the United Nations.
- It involves mutual steps by the Israelis and Palestinians with the ultimate goal of an independent Palestinian state and a secure Israel.
- In exchange for statehood, the road map requires the Palestinian Authority to make democratic reforms and abandon the use of violence. Israel, for its part, must support and accept the emergence of a reformed Palestinian government and end settlement activity of the Gaza Strip and West Bank as the Palestinian terrorist threat is removed.

he Process:

Phase I:
End to Palestinian violence; Palestinian political reform; Israeli withdrawal from Palestinian cities and freeze on settlement expansion; Palestinian elections.
Phase II:
International Conference to support Palestinian economic recovery and launch a process, leading to establishment of an independent Palestinian state with provisional borders; revival of multilateral engagement on issues including regional water resources, environment, economic development, refugees, and arms control issues; Arab states restore pre-intifada links to Israel.
• Phase III:
Second international conference; permanent status agreement and end of conflict; agreement on final borders, clarification of the highly controversial question of the fate of Jerusalem, refugees and settlements; Arab state to agree to peace deals with Israel.

-The Roadmap has never progressed past the first phase, Progress on the Roadmap was completely halted following the Palestinian election of Hamas in 2006.
- Prime Minister Ariel Sharon began a process that led Israel to unilaterally withdraw from the Gaza Strip and four West Bank settlements as part of a larger policy of “disengagement,” or the separation of Israel from Palestinian territories.
- The Gaza disengagement was very controversial domestically, because Israeli soldiers were required to uproot Israeli citizens who wanted to remain in their communities in Gaza.
- Nevertheless, Israel decided to remove itself from this territory so that the Palestinians living there could govern themselves. The plan has been criticized because it was not done as part of negotiations with the Palestinians and did not require the removal of all West Bank settlements (four were dismantled).
- After Israel withdrew from Gaza, the number of rockets fired from Gaza into Israel increased dramatically.
Israel Disengages from Gaza (2005)
- In January 2006, Palestinians elected a majority of Hamas members to the Palestinian Authority’s legislature over the PLO’s Fatah party that had previously been in power.
- People have speculated that Hamas won the elections because many Palestinians saw the previous government as corrupt.

As a result of the election, many Western nations imposed sanctions and suspended aid to the Palestinian Authority that they declared would be lifted
once Hamas:
•Recognizes Israel’s right to exist.
•Renounces violence.
•Accepts previous Palestinian-Israeli agreements.
Hamas Wins Elections (2006)
-Also known as
Operation Cast Lead
.
- Israel's stated aim was to stop rocket fire into Israel and arms import into the Gaza strip. After the beginning of the conflict, Palestinian groups continued firing rockets in response to what they characterized as massacres.

-During the three-week offensive on Gaza, Israel caused extensive demolition and bloodshed:

Palestinian victims, according to Gaza medics:
-- 1,205 killed, including:
-- 410 children (under 16)
-- 108 women
-- 113 elderly men
-- 14 medics
-- 4 journalists

-- 5,300 wounded
•2,500 targets hit by Israeli air force and navy inside Gaza, including:

-- four UN-run schools
-- a compound of the UN agency for Palestinian refugees
-- two media buildings
-- 16 medical centers
-- 16 ambulances
•Damage in Gaza: (figures from Palestinian statistics bureau)

-- 475.9 million dollars of damage to infrastructure
-- 500 million dollars in estimated clean-up costs
-- 4,000 residential buildings destroyed
-- 16,000 residential buildings damaged
-- 1,500 commercial facilities damaged, including factories, shops, metal
workshops
-- 51 government buildings destroyed, including ministries and police
-- 18 schools and other education buildings
-- 20 mosques destroyed
-- 50 kilometers of roads destroyed.
War Crimes:
-The Use of White Phosphorous which is a chemical that causes Cancer, Severe burns, and even death.

-On January 18th, both sides agreed to a Ceasefire and the Gaza war ended.
The Gaza War (2008-2009)
-The Gaza flotilla raid was a military operation by Israel against six ships of the "Gaza Freedom Flotilla" on 31 May 2010 in international waters of the Mediterranean Sea.

The flotilla, organized by the Free Gaza Movement and the Turkish Foundation for Human Rights and Freedoms and Humanitarian Relief (İHH), was carrying humanitarian aid and construction materials, with the intention of breaking the Israeli-Egyptian blockade of the Gaza Strip.

On 31 May 2010, Israeli Shayetet 13 naval commandos boarded the ships from speedboats and helicopters in order to force the ships to the Israeli port of Ashdod for inspection. On the Turkish ship MV Mavi Marmara, boarding faced resistance from about 40 IHH activists – described in a UN report as a "separate hardcore group" – who were armed with iron bars, dinner plates and knives

During the struggle, nine activists were killed, and many were wounded. All activist casualties were caused by gunshots; some of them in point blank range.
-The raid drew widespread condemnation internationally and resulted in a deterioration of Israel-Turkey relations. Israel consequently eased its blockade on the Gaza Strip, all activists were freed, and the ships returned.

In September 2011, a
United Nations report, after analysis of both Turkey and Israeli national investigations, concluded that the Israeli blockade was legal, but that Israel army used excessive force in this incident by firing stun and smoke grenades from the Israeli army’s speed boats and helicopters before boarding into flotilla and conducted live fire rounds from the helicopters before or after boarding, though the flotilla was still in international waters.
Freedom Flotilla Raid (2010)
The War of Attrition
(Harb al-Istinzaf)
-During the 1967 War, Israel gained land from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria.
-Israel maintained that Jerusalem would remain a unified city,
with all religions having access to their holy sites.
-Arab nations met in Khartoum, Sudan to discuss the land that was captured in the 1967 war.
-Gamal Abd El Nasser concluded that the only way Israel was going to give back the land that was seized during the war was military actions that were to compel Israel to forfeit the Sinai Peninnsula.
-Shared attacks between Israel and Egypt take place along cease-fire lines. The ongoing attacks came to an end with the death of Abd el Nasser and Anwar el Sadat's rein over Egypt.
-Sadat agreed to end the War of Attrition, but had other plans in mind. He began planning the 6th of October War.
-During the war of attrition, the Israeli air force carried out a raid on the Egyptian school at the village of Bahr-Al-Bakkar in Al-Sharqyia. The raid resulted in the destruction of a primary school children..,The attack was carried out by the Israeli air force F-4 Phantom fighters bombers received from USA
-Of 130 school children who attended the school, 46 were killed and over 50 children were wounded. The school itself was completely demolished. As usual Israelis claimed that they believed that the target was a military installation
The Yom Kippur War
(6th of October War)
-Following Harb al-Istinzaf, Anwar el Sadat had begun planning the Yom Kippur War.
-Egyptian and Syrian forces, supported by Iraqi and Jordanian, collaborated to plan a surprise attack on Israeli soldiers on Yom Kippur or the 6th of October. Yom Kippur is a Jewish holiday on which most Israelis take a break from working and celebrate. This war also coincided with the holy month of Ramadan.
-Egyptian and Syrian forces crossed cease-fire lines and planned surprise attacks on Israeli forces.
- The Egyptians prevented Israeli forces from reinforcing the Bar Lev Line and proceeded to attack the Israeli fortifications. Meanwhile Egyptian engineers crossed over to breach the sand wall.
-For the next several days, the Israeli Air Force was needed to deal with the simultaneous and ultimately more threatening Syrian invasion of the Golan Heights.
-After a month or so of fighting, Egyptian and Israeli negotiations were underway. Several agreements were signed, many in Geneva, in which the Sinai Penninsula was given back to Egyptian authorities.
Israeli Raid on Bahr-Al-Bakkar School
Tayeb ana 3ayez anam
-During the war of attrition,on the 8th of April ,1970.The Israeli air force carried out a raid on the Egyptian school at the village of Bahr-Al-Bakkar ,south of Port-Said,in the eastern province of Sharqyia,the raid resulted in the destruction of a primary school children.

The attack was carried out by the Israeli air force F-4 Phantom fighters bombers received from USA
At 9.20 am five Nappalm bombs along with two air to ground missiles strucked the single floor school,which consisted of 3 classrooms.
Of 130 school children who attended the school,46 were killed ,and over 5o children were wounded,many of them maimed for lifeThe school itself was completely demolished.

-. As usual Israelis claimed that they believed that the target was a military installation

Camp David Accords
Nationalization of Suez Canal
July 26th, 1956
-Camp David Accords were agreements between Israel and Egypt that were signed on September 17, 1978.
-The Camp David Accords led in the following year to a peace treaty between those two countries; the first such treaty between Israel and any of its Arab neighbours.
-US President Jimmy Carter committed himself to working toward a
comprehensive Middle East peace settlement based on UN Resolution
242 which called for:

The withdrawal of Israel from the occupied territories
Arab recognition of and peace with Israel
The settlement to the problem of Palestinian Refugees.

Results:
-Israel agreed to withdraw from Sinai
-The establishment of Egyptian-Israeli relations (initiated by Egypt)
-Opening of the Suez Canal to Israeli ships (which had been barred earlier)
Full transcript