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Chapter 1

Introduction: Biology Today

Katie Heer

on 13 January 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 1

Is a way of knowing
One that is based on inquiry
The Process of Science
Page 20
Question #13
Must be a recent event within the last year.
Question #14
Assignment Question: Due Day of Exam
Is a much broader in scope than a hypothesis
Because they are so comprehensive, they only become widely accepted in science if they are supported by an accumulation of extensive and varied evidence.
Act of testing the hypothesis to see whether or not the results are as predicted
Ex. The flashlight should work
Data/Information collected during the experiment
Experiment supports/does not support hypothesis
If does support make addition predictions and test them as well
If does not support revise hypothesis or pose a new hypothesis and test it
Scientific Method
An act or instance of viewing or noting a fact or occurrence for some scientific purpose
Ex. My flashlight doesn’t work.
A matter for investigation
Ex. What’s wrong with my flashlight?
A proposed explanation for a set of observations that is testable
Ex. The flashlight batteries are dead.
A what experimental results or observations we should expect if a particular hypothesis is correct
Ex. If I replace the batteries, the flashlight will work.
Scientific Method
Is a formal process of inquiry it consists of a series of steps
Scientific Method
Contains the code for life.
Houses all the information necessary to reproduce the cell’s function and structure
Found in both Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells
Information that is passed down from parent to offspring
Organization of Life
Modern biology is changing our very culture
Cell Biology
Both are revolutionizing medicine and agriculture
New tools for investigating ancestry and crime solving
Evolutionary Biology
Both are reshaping psychology and sociology
Evaluate environmental issues
Biology All Around Us
Introduction: Biology Today
Discovery Sciences
The process of scientific inquiry that focuses on describing nature.
Can lead to important conclusions based on a type of logic called inductive reasoning
An inductive conclusion is a generalization that summarizes a large number of observations
Hypothesis-Driven Science
The process of scientific inquiry that uses the steps of the scientific method to answer questions about nature.
Scientific Method
Nutrients are recycled within the ecosystem, whereas, energy flows through an ecosystem
Energy Flows and Nutrients Cycle
Is the study of Life
Bio – Life
-logy – study of
Domain Bacteria
Kingdom Bacteria
Domain Archaea
Kingdom Archaea
Domains : Prokaryotic Cells
Cell is the basic unit of life
It is the lowest level of structure that can perform all activities required for life.
All organisms are composed of cells
1 Cell
Many cells
“Before Nucleus”
“True Nucleus”
The Scope of Life
Energy Utilization
Take in and use of energy
Response to the Environment
Response to environmental stimuli
Reproduce their own kind
The capacity of populations to change over time
The Scope of Life
Ordered organization
Adjust its internal environment
Growth and Development
Information carried by genes control pattern of growth and development
Domain Eukarya
Kingdom Plantae
Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Animalia
Kingdom Protists
Domains : Eukaryotic Cells
Testing whether light has an effect on the developing organisms
Control Group
Treatment Group
Treatment Group
Individuals/Sample that is tested changing only ONE variable
Control Group
Nothing is changed
Specific characteristic
Controlled Experiment: Includes experimental and control groups tested in parallel
All the environments on Earth that support LIFE
Consists of all organisms living in a particular area, as well as the nonliving, physical components of the environment that affect the organisms, such as water, air, soil, and sunlight
All organisms in the area
Groups of interacting individuals of one species, living in the same area at the same time
Is an individual living thing
Organ Systems and Organs
An organism’s body consists of several organ systems, each of which contain two or more organs.
Organ Systems and Organs
Each organ is made up of several different tissues. A tissue consists of a group of similar cells performing a specific function.
The smallest unit that can display all the characteristics of life.
Are functional components of cells.
Molecules and Atoms
Clusters of even smaller chemical units called atoms. Each cell consists of an enormous number of chemicals that function together to give the cell the properties we recognize as life.
Molecules and Atoms
1. Which of the following levels of life’s hierarchy is not appropriate when referring to two of life’s domains: Archaea and Bacteria?
A. the population level
B. the organism level
C. the organ level
D. the molecular level
Concept Check
2. Which of the following is the correct order from largest to smallest of the biological organization?

a.Biosphere, ecosystem, population, organism, organ, cell

b.Ecosystem, community, population, organism, organ, organ system

c. Biosphere, population, organism, cell, tissue, molecule

d.Community, population, organism, organ, biosphere, cell
3. All the organisms on your campus make up?

a.an ecosystem

b.a population

c.a community

d.a biosphere
4. Prokayotic cells can be found in which domain(s)?


b.Bacteria and Archaea


5. Humans are found in which domain(s)?


b.Bacteria and Archaea


Turn in Questions with NAME and Class
Now let's go through the Questions and Discuss the Answers.
Feel free to take notes. You may see these and other questions on the Exam.
C. the Organ Level
a.Biosphere, ecosystem, population, organism, organ, cell
C. a Community
B. Bacteria and Archaea
D. Eukarya
What is the smallest level of biological organization that can display all the characteristics of life?
A Cell
Which properties of life apply to a car? Which do not?
A car demonstrates ORDER, REGULATION, ENERGY UTILIZATION, and RESPONSE to the environment.
But a car does not GROW, REPRODUCE, or EVOLVE.
Within an ecosystem, ____________ are recycled, whereas _______________ flows through.
6. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all living organisms?
a. capable of self-reproduction
b. composed of multiple cells
c. complex yet organized
d. energy utilization
b. composed of multiple cells
Word Roots
Bio = life
-logy = study of
Word Root
Bio = life
sphere = a ball, sphere
Word Roots
eco = a house
sys = with, together
word roots
commun = common, in common
word root
popul = the popular, people
word roots
organ = organ, instrument
-ism = belief, the process of; an interrelation of organs
word root
Pro = before
kary = the nucleus
eu = good, well, true

word root
bacteri = bacteria
archae = ancient

word roots
scien = knowledge
commun = common, in common
popul = the poplar, people
organ = organ, instrument
ism = belief, the process of; interrelation of organs,
pro = before
bio = life
logy = study of
eco = a house
sphere = a ball, sphere
sys = with, together
kary = the nucleus
eu = good, well, true
bacteri = bacteria
archae = ancient
scien = knowledge
word root
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