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AS Media Studies

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Kathryn Thorpe

on 20 September 2016

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Transcript of AS Media Studies

Released by WaterTower Music
(which is owned by Time Warner)
AS Media Studies

Audiences and Institutions
AS exam

Section A: Textual Analysis and Representation
(Unseen moving image) [50 marks]

Section B: Audiences and Institutions
[50 marks]

The audience is...
When television became commercially available in the 1950s it was a social experience, families gathered to watch the limited news and entertainment programs that were available.
Now a study by Ofcom has found that 53 per cent of UK adults use a smartphone, tablet or computer while watching television. It also found that many are watching other content on those devices at the same time.
We now live in the
Digital Age
where computers and technology are a part of normal, everyday life and where people have become
digitally adept
and are capable of using different technologies.
What can you do with a smart phone?

(That you can do with other technologies)
Technological Convergence
This is called...
Technological convergence is where existing technologies merge into new forms that bring together different types of media and applications. e.g an Xbox (Games console) can play TV programs and stream Films.
Changes in Hardware

Technological convergence also leads to devices that are designed specifically to replace a number of different items. Mobile phones, for example, have moved beyond simple voice communication devices and now offer the functionality of personal music players, digital cameras, video recorders and text messenger systems.
Why is this good for a

With advances over time technology is becoming more advanced: good quality products are available at an affordable rate and are relatively easy to get hold of.

Smart phones, tablets, laptops and even filming equipment aren't just for certain people, anyone can own one (finance, contracts etc.)
Proliferation is a sudden increase in the amount or number of something.
Think of profiteroles- there's lots of them!
It is becoming easier and cheaper to get hold of these technologies.
Ways of consuming films
Research from the UK Film Council 2011 has studied viewing preferences for films. We see clearly how younger people are more digital, (including piracy) whilst older generations prefer traditional TV channels for watching film. It's interesting to see how DVD remains relatively strong across all ages as a proportion of how we watch films.
So we've discussed audiences and how they have changed/ responded to Technological Convergence and Proliferation...

but what about institutions?
What are your own viewing preferences for film and why?
The 'Big Six' in the Film industry
There are six major companies which dominate the film industry: 20th Century Fox, The Walt Disney Company, Warner Bros., Columbia, Universal and Paramount.
The reason they are successful in such a competitive industry is that they are multi-million dollar

is a corporation that is made up of a number of different smaller companies. These
smaller companies are called
. In a conglomerate, the main (parent) company owns a controlling stake in a number of smaller companies. These function independently, but are ultimately controlled by the
What are the concerns about such big companies (conglomerates) dominating the film industry?
Task One
We've mentioned that Warner Bros. is part of a conglomerate, now find out the other companies that Time Warner owns. Research what companies Time Warner owns, Time Inc. and Warner Bros. Add these companies to the diagram. You can find these through wikipedia, the Time Warner website, Warner Bros. website and google.
Vertical and Horizontal Integration
Vertical integration
This is the making of the film, all the processes involved from filming, editing to finalizing the finished product
Film distribution is the process of making a film available for viewing by an audience. A professional Film Distributor determines the marketing strategy for the film and how it should be released (e.g cinema release, download, straight to DVD/ Blu-ray)
Warner Bros. Pictures International is a global leader in the marketing and distribution of feature films, operating offices in more than 30 countries
The exhibition of the film is how and where it will be shown; (cinemas, DVD, Blu-ray etc.)
Warner Bros. Home Entertainment brings together home video (Warner Home Video), digital distribution (Warner Bros. Digital Distribution) WBHE is responsible for the global distribution of content through Blu-ray Disc and DVD, electronic sell-through and transactional VOD, and delivery of theatrical content to wireless and online channels to reach audiences through as many channels, platforms and devices as possible.
The WARNER BROS. PICTURES GROUP brings together the Studio’s motion picture production, marketing and distribution operations into a single entity. Warner Bros. Pictures produces and distributes a wide-ranging slate of some 18-22 films each year, employing a business paradigm that mitigates risk while maximizing productivity and capital.
Why is it beneficial for Warner Bros. to control these processes?
Horizontal integration
Warner Bros. Entertainment owns DC Entertainment
Horizontal integration is where a production company merges/ works with another production company:
Warner Bros.
Warner Bros. Pictures produces and distributes a wide-ranging slate of some 18-22 films each year, employing a business paradigm that mitigates risk while maximizing productivity and profit. Warner Bros. Pictures either fully finances or co-finances the films it produces and maintains worldwide distribution rights.
In 2015, Warner Bros. Pictures grossed $3.71 billion in global box office cinema sales.
The Dark Knight Rises
By comparison this IMAX frame is about 10 times larger with 10 times the resolution than regular 35mm film. Greater detail makes it in the shot, like the smoke and fog, and also more vivid-looking extras. To allow for as much screen space as possible, IMAX film runs through the cameras and projectors sideways, with the sprocket holes — 15 per frame — at the top and bottom instead of the sides. And the audio track doesn’t appear on the film print, but on a separate program that is synced to the projector. All this makes for more surface area on the frame to create a denser, sharper image.
Filming the Dark Knight Rises
Cross-media ownership
This is where a company owns more than one form of media e.g Time Warner owns: Warner Bros. Pictures
Turner Broadcasting
and DC
(comic books)
Why might this be good for a company?
Release date: 20.07.12 Shown on 4404 screens
Exhibition/ Exchange
The viral campaign surrounding the “Dark Knight Rises” was presented as a Gotham City police investigation. "Leaked" police documents were found on the film's official website TheDarkKnightRises.com. An arrest warrant and wanted poster for ‘The Batman’ had been issued along with a ‘police report’ warning Gotham police officers about preparing in case Batman tries to return during ‘Harvey Dent Day.’ The report notes that any graffiti supporting Batman’s return should be photographed and emailed to tdkr07202012@gothampolicedepartment.com or tweeted using the hashtag #tdkr07202012.
When fans found the graffiti and tweeted the photos (from Rome, Buenos Aires, São Paulo, New York City and Melbourne.) frames from the films trailer were unlocked.

'Saturation release' distributed globally
Bus banners and billboards
Star Power
Internet- clevver movies
TV- The Jonathon Ross Show
The Dark Knight Rises was filmed using IMAX cameras (72 mins)
these are high quality cameras. In order to keep the quality the
film was shown in IMAX cinemas and available on Blu-Ray, which is higher definition than DVD. (See bottom right image).
This limited edition Windows Phone is incredibly unique, with a Batman logo laser-etched on the back, with exclusive Dark Knight Rises themes and applications. The latter includes trailers, trivia about the film, and a rewards-based game that’s built around Foursquare check-ins. Other than that, the phone is pretty much identical to the standard Nokia Lumia 900.

Nokia Lumia 900
Harry Potter
And the Deathly Hallows
Why is this good for a

The Dark Knight Rises is marketed largely on its celebrity factor; Christian Bale, Michael Caine, Morgan Freeman, Anne Hathaway,
Tom Hardy and Gary Oldman. It's director Christopher Nolan is famous for the previous two Dark Knight films, Inception, The Prestige and Memento.
Actors are well-known and of British/ American origin, appeal to a wide audience.
Cross-media convergence
Cross- media convergence is different media platforms working together to make a product. e.g Batman (comic book character, DC comics) has been made into a (Film) and now a new mobile app (Game) has been made. So here we have a merge of different media.
Consolidation task- quiz
How is this good for audiences?
Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc.

Batman is a fictional character, his real identity is Bruce Wayne- a billionaire entrepeneur who uses Batman to fight crime and avenge his parents death. Batman is a superhero appearing in comic books published by DC Comics. Batman was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, and first appeared in Detective Comics #27 (May 1939).

Batman became a very popular character soon after his introduction and gained his own comic book title, Batman, in 1940. The late 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended.

Batman has been adapted into such media as film, radio, television, and video games, as well as numerous merchandising items

Appeals to both young and old

(See Powerpoint for more information)
The story of Batman
The Story of Harry Potter
Harry Potter is a feature film series based on the Harry Potter novels by author J. K. Rowling.

Since the release of the first novel, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, on 30 June 1997, the books have gained immense popularity, critical acclaim, and commercial success worldwide.

The first Harry Potter film, (based on the first book) was released in 2001 and made $90.3 million during its first weekend, breaking the record for highest-opening weekend of all time [The Lost World: Jurassic Park.]

The series is distributed by Warner Bros. and consists of eight fantasy films beginning with Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (2001) and culminating with Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 (2011)

From the success of the Harry Potter novels and films games, merchandise have been created, with rumours of up-coming Harry Potter spin-off films.
British Cast
Julie Walters

Richard Griffiths

Bill Nighy
Daniel Radcliffe

Rupert Grint

Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 2 is the final instalment of the Harry Potter film franchise (8 films in total). It is a British/ American film. Despite their cast and location mainly being British their funding has come from the US (Warner Bros. Pictures and Warner Bros. Studios).
Warner Bros. Pictures worked with HeyDay Films to produce Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 2
This is an example of ______________
It was filmed for 2D release with an optional 3D release in mind.
Release date: 15.07.11 screened on 4,375 screens

'Saturated release' distributed globally

In the wake of the success of the 3-D film Avatar in late 2009, Warner Bros. announced that the Deathly Hallows films will be converted to 3-D for showing in 3-D. The second film is nonetheless being widely released in traditional 2-D as well for ticket-buyers who prefer that viewing option.

Deathly Hallows: Part 2 is the highest-grossing film of 2011 and the 9th film in history to have grossed over $1 billion.

Exhibition/ exchange
Cross-media promotion
Time Inc. (part of Time Warner) owns Time Magazine and Entertainment Weekly.
When a new Harry Potter film is due to be released the magazines promote this film.
-What else does Time Warner own that could be used to promote new HP films?
Gameloft made this (same games developer as The Dark Knight Rises mobile app)
Harry Potter and the Social Media Storm
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows is available to rent on DVD from Netflix
Gameloft made The Dark Knight Rises mobile game
Available to rent online

How do Audiences (fans) and Institutions (Time Warner) use social media to promote Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows?
The way we
films has changed, we no longer simply watch them at the cinema or on TV...
instead many people use media devices such as iPads and laptops to watch films.
multifunctioning devices
help us
films how we want.
Film production + comic book production
Games production + games production
Why would a Harry Potter film in 3D appeal to an audience?
NB: Don't be mistaken that 3D film is a new concept- 3D films have existed in some form since 1915 and were prominently featured in the 1950s in American cinema.
Why did Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 2 make so much money on its Opening Weekend?
Cinema as a social experience
Cross-media convergence
Synergy is the companies of a conglomerate working together to release products at the same time to promote something. This is usually beneficial for the conglomerate.

e.g The Dark Knight Rises film (WB Pictures) is released
At the same time...
The Dark Knight Rises soundtrack (Water Tower Music) is released

Both are owned by Time Warner
Filmmaking process
1- Development

2- Preproduction
3- Production
4- Post Production
5- Distribution
Script & Idea
Target audience & budget
Cast, Crew, Locations, Props,
The director, cinematographer, production designer, sound designer, art director, music composer, choreographer and the actors.
Schuedule for filming
Filming that takes place
Editing footage The final sound mix is created and the voice recordings are synchronized with the entire movies. Special effects are added, including the opening titles and the closing credits.
Marketing the film and promotion via press interviews, film showings and film festival activities. Online and offline distribution. Releasing the movie into theaters and on DVD/ Blu Ray.
Emma Watson
Harry Potter was filmed in the UK, in a variety of places from Scotland and Wales to Durham down to London.

Hogwarts is filmed in Durham castle, Alnwick castle and in 'Deathly Hallows Part 2' the demolished Hogwarts is filmed in UK based Leavesden Studios. http://origin2.wbstudiotour.co.uk/about-us

Why UK?

JK Rowling is a British born writer, despite London being the only non-fictional location in the series she took inspiration from places in the UK and wanted Harry Potter to be a 'British film'.

Harry Potter filming locations:

The making of Harry Potter:
Green screen
CGI and special effects
models and make-up artists
large cast and crew

Teaser posters
Cross-media promotion
Visit the Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
Part 2 website
Teaser posters
Official posters
Teacher: Kathryn Thorpe
(Sold off in 2014)
Online distribution
Time Warner owns HBO
Cast/ Crew
Chris Nolan
Christian Bale
Anne Hathaway
Morgan Freeman
Joseph Gordon-Levitt
Michael Caine
Tom Hardy
How might these stars help attract an audience?
Time Warner used to own Time Inc. Entertainment Weekly is published by Time Inc. (Time Warner using its subsidiaries to promote its films)
Online distribution
Time Warner owns HBO
Horizontal Integration
Warner Bros. Pictures

(Production company)
worked with
HeyDay Films

(Production company)
Batman's first appearance in
The Dark Knight Rises
The American Film Industry
The British Film Industry
What Film London does:
So the producer turned to Direct Distribution to release the film
Distribution problems...

As UK film-funding slowly shrinks, low-budget filmmaking is becoming an increasingly common reality for first-time feature filmmakers.

At the same time, it's becoming harder and harder for small BRITISH independent films like ours to break through the crowded marketplace, with more films being made each year (nearly 200 made in the UK alone in 2012), and all competing with big-budget Blockbusters for limited screen slots.

We therefore want YOU to help us change that. If we want low-budget independent films to survive, then we’re going to need audiences to show their hunger for them and be part of the process that gets them to the big screen. That's why we're asking you directly “DO YOU WANT TO SEE THIS FILM?”

If the answer is "YES!", then with your support we will be able to go directly to the cinemas with a Distribution budget and a proven demand for the film, allowing us to release the film independently so that audiences can enjoy BORROWED TIME on the big screen where it belongs.

The different climate between US and UK distributors
How has technological convergence helped fund this project?
It was not successful.
Social media
Stretch and challenge: When did Warner Bros. buy the rights to _ _?
What characters belong to that company?
News bias
Vimeo video
on Production, Distribution and exhibition
https: //vimeo.com/77969015
What films have the actors starred in?
Full transcript