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Nutrients and their benefits to the body

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farwa ahmed

on 14 October 2014

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Transcript of Nutrients and their benefits to the body

Farwa Ahmed
Unit 21 P2

Nutrients and their benefits to the body
This slideshow will help increase your knowledge about the importance of particular nutrients in the body. This will also help you understand how the way you process your food can affect its nutritional benefits.

Introduction
Carbohydrates are good source of energy for the body. Even while we are sleeping our body needs energy to function for the chemical reactions that are going on inside i.e. You need energy for your heart to beat etc. When you are awake energy is needed for movement. Around 50% of our dietary intake should come from carbohydrates. There are two groups of carbohydrates simple carbohydrates (sugars) or complex carbohydrates(starches and fibre).

Carbohydrates
This is an essential nutrient that is used in the body for growth and repair, so this is an very important nutrient for infants, children and people who are ill or injured. Amino acids make up proteins. There is a basic molecular structure that all amino acids have which consists of a carbon atom and four groups of attached atoms. Nitrogen and two hydrogen atoms are one of the four groups called amino group. One carbon, one hydrogen and two oxygen atoms make up the acid group. The third atom is a single hydrogen atom and the fourth atom can be different depending on what amino acid it is.

Proteins
The word ‘lipid’ means fats and oils. Lipids do not dissolve in water. The main kind of lipids in our diets our called triglycerides, these form of three fatty acids which are joined with glycerol. A substances called bile is released from the gall bladder into the digestive tract, and lipase is released from the pancreas into the jejunum. The fatty acids and glycerol's are taken apart by these two substances. Most cells in the body use fatty acids for energy. Glycerol is converted into glucose by the liver and can be used for respiration later on. Having some fats in our diets is extremely important as we can get vitamins, A, D, E and K. Fats are also necessary for hormones to develop, to maintain healthy skin and to stop the loss of heat from the body. However eating too much fat makes the body store it as adipose tissue and this can lead to obesity.

Lipids
Sugars (carbohydrate)
Food such as fruits and milk have natural sugars in them however sugar can also be added to foods. Glucose and fructose(originated from fruits) are two of the simplest forms of sugars. These can be easily digested by the body as they are monosaccharide and single molecules. Glucose is what provides the body with energy and it is absorbed into the blood steam and gets transported around the body. When two monosaccharides mix together they make disaccharides, sucrose, lactose and maltose are common disaccharides. Sucrose is more commonly known as table sugar and made by mixing glucose and fructose. The natural sugar that is found in milk is lactose and it contains a mixture of glucose and galactose. Lastly maltose originates from grains and it is a mixture of two glucose molecules. Sugars are added to all types of foods i.e. Biscuits and cakes contain added sugars however many people do not know that ketchup, beer and snack bars also contain sugar. The British Nutrition Foundation suggest that sugar should make up no more than 11% of an adults diet.

Starch (carbohydrate)
It is suggested that a third of our dietary intake should come from starchy foods such as pasta, rice, bread, potatoes etc. Starchy food which are also known as complex carbohydrates allow energy escape much slower than sugars, so you will feel full for longer. Starches are polysaccharides as they are a combination of lots of monosaccharide joined together. Before the cells in our body can use energy from the carbohydrates the carbohydrates have to be broken down in to glucose. If there is excess glucose left over than a hormone is release from the pancreas that converts the glucose into glycogen, this then gets stored in liver or the muscles for later use, however this can also be stored as fat. If a person does not eat enough carbohydrates then this may mean that their body has to use protein for energy rather than growth and repair. If a persons intake of carbohydrates is extremely low then the body may start to break down muscle and other tissues to make glucose and use for energy. This is known as ketosis and it is more widely related to people with diabetes, people with diabetes are not able to use glucose in the blood steam as they lack insulin. It is likely that those who do not have a lot carbohydrates in their diet will also lack in fibre, vitamin A, B and E. A poor diet like this can increase the likely hood of a person developing other health issues in extreme cases cancer.

Fibre (carbohydrate)
Fibre which is also known as non-starch polysaccharides is an essential part of a healthy diet and you can get it from vegetables and cereal. The two different categories that fibre is broken down in to are soluble and insoluble.
Soluble fibre come in handy when reducing cholesterol in the blood and can only be partly digested. It is also very useful when it comes to controlling blood sugar levels and blood sugar levels are what control appetite. Peas, beans and lentils are all rich in fibre.
Insoluble comes from vegetables stalks, brown rice and wholemeal cereal. Insoluble fibre can sometime be also known as cellulose. Insoluble fibre cannot be digested by the body so in turn don't actually contain any calories however fibre makes the bulks in our faeces which stops constipation. Also fibre is known to reduce the chances of developing bowel cancer and other bowel conditions. If you have a lot of fibre in your diet you are more likely to feel full more quickly so this stops people from over eating.

Sugar substitutes (carbohydrates)
Sugar substitutes are artificial sugars that allow food to be sweetened without using sugar however these are high in calories and can cause tooth decay. The first sweetener to ever be made was saccharin, it was made in 1879. Aspartame was agreed on in 1982 and this can be used in food as a replacement for sugar unlike saccharin. Sortbitol is used in the production of sugar free foods. Artificial sweeteners are actually much sweeter than sugar so only a small amount is needed. Using artificial sweeteners rather than sugar saves you a lot of calories.

Vitamins
Six major minerals and eight trace minerals that are found in food. The biggest minerals are iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. Some of these minerals are only needed in tiny quantities. They are essential for chemical reactions that take place in the body and if you do not have enough of them then your health could be at risk.

Minerals
Here are examples of amino acids
Polypeptides, essential and non-essential amino acids.
Proteins are made when amino acids come together in chains, these are known as polypeptides. Peptide covalent bonds hold together the protein. There are 20 different amino acids which can come together to form separate polypeptides, eight of these polypeptides we must get from the food that we eat. The other polypeptides our bodies can make them itself. Protein can come from many different food such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk,, soya and cheese. Protein in the body has many different uses. All body tissues have protein in them this includes hair and bone. In addition enzymes and hormones are protein. Proteins are involved all the chemical activities that are taking place inside the body e.g. While digesting food and when messages travel along a nerve. The amount of protein that a person should intake can vary depending on a person’s age, size, gender, and how active the person is stated by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of United Nations (2009). People in the UK usually aren't short of protein and this certainly shouldn't happen in an care home. When someone is a vegan or vegetarian they must be careful and ensure that they are eating all the right foods that contain the right amino acids. Vegans/vegetarian can get a good source of protein from nuts, seeds, lentils, beans and soya. Foods such as chickpeas, kidney beans, and lentils are low in fat and high in fibre so should keep you feeling full for a long time.

Monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated
Fatty acids form of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They are set out as a carbon chain with hydrogen atoms with it. Each carbon atom can bond with four other atoms. Saturated and unsaturated are two biggest groups of fats. Saturated fats the carbon atoms forms single bonds with other atoms, one of the bonds is with an hydrogen atom and the last carbon atom is joined with the acid group. Monounsaturated fats have two less hydrogen atoms than the carbon can hold and this is because there is a double bond between two of the carbon atoms. Polyunsaturated fats have four less hydrogen atoms and this is because they have two or more double bonds between the carbon atoms. Many saturated fats i.e. Lard, cream, butter and the fats on meat tend to come from animal sources, these fats are usually solid at room temperature. On the other hand unsaturated fats usually come from vegetable sources and are liquid at room temperature. Unsaturated fats have the vital fatty acids that the body cannot make by itself and so we have to get them from food. Unsaturated fats decrease the amount of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) also known as bad cholesterol in the blood and increase the amount of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) also known as good cholesterol. HDLs can prevent heart disease. Saturated fats is one of the biggest reason for heart disease and strokes in the UK. In addition research also suggests that large amounts of saturated and unsaturated fats can increase the risk of cancer.

Cis and trans fats are two sub groups of unsaturated fats. Fats that come from plants are known as cis. These can be monounsaturated or polyunsaturated however have a short shelf life. Adding hydrogen to cis to turn them into trans fats is called hydrogenation, this makes the fats saturated and also increases the shelf life on the other hand trans fats due increase risk to heart disease and this is why many they are not widely used with manufactures.

Cholesterol is made in the body itself naturally and different people may produce different amounts of cholesterol. However this cholesterol can clog up in the artery walls, narrowing the lumen (this is this a channel within the artery). If this takes place in the coronary arteries it could lead to an heart attack. If there is a clog up of cholesterol in the arteries in the brain then this can increase a persons risk of having a stroke. If too much cholesterol is naturally being produced in the body then diet has to be taken into particular consideration while making sure that amount of saturated fats intake is low. Tablets that help reduce cholesterol level in the blood can be prescribed which will reduce the risk of a heart attack or stroke occurring. Adults and children over the age of 5 should have diet that is low in fat. Children under five may not be able to meet their energy needs if their diet is low in fat. It is important that people consider healthier alternatives and people should also be made aware of the danger of a diet high in fat.

Vitamins are vital nutrients that are needed to work efficiently by the body. Fat soluble and water soluble are the two different types of vitamins. The fat soluble vitamins are stored in the body and therefore these vitamins do not need to be eaten every day, where as water soluble vitamins are released in with urine daily and so we have to get these vitamins everyday. When you soak vegetables in water for a long period of time before cooking, a lot of the vitamins are lost in the water even before cooking. Also when vegetables are chopped too small this makes their surface area bigger which means more nutrients will be lost. These two tables show the main vitamins and their daily recommended intake.

Iron is vital for the production of haemoglobin in the red blood cells. Also in childhood growth and the immune system are improved. Oxygen is carried in the haemoglobin part of the red blood cell, so if you do not have enough haemoglobin a person can become anaemic. The symptoms of this are they may be breathless, feel tired and cold, may feel dizzy and could have headaches. Being anaemic can also affect a persons concentration. Good sources of iron are dark green leafy vegetables, red meat, liver, apricot, dried fruit and many breakfast cereals. Without vitamin C absorption of iron can decrease so it is important to have a good amount of vitamin C in your diet too. Taking iron tablets can have side effect such as constipation, nausea, vomiting and stomach aches. The recommended intake for iron in adults is 14mg per day.

These tables show other major minerals that are needed by the body and also the trace elements that are needed. Information in tables adapted from health and social care level 3 book, Beryl Stretch/ Mary Whitehouse and http://www.emedicinehealth.com/minerals_their_functions_and_sources-health/article_em.htm
Calcium is needed for our bones and teeth to develop properly. Vitamin D is essential for the absorption of calcium in small intestines. Our Bones have calcium laid on them all throughout our lives, however it is really important for young females to eat foods that are rich in calcium, this reduces their risks of osteoporosis at a later point in life. Calcium also plays a big role in helping the heart, muscles and nerves to work efficiently. In addition calcium triggers certain enzymes. Milk, bread flour, cheddar cheese, skimmed milk, green vegetables, sardines (with bones) and tofu are foods all in high in calcium. Shortage of calcium in the diet can cause rickets, ostemalacia, osteoporosis and muscle cramps. Adults should take 800 mg of calcium per day.

Water does not only come from drinks it also comes from many food sources i.e. Fresh celery is made up of 94 per cent water. Also 70% of our body is also made out of water. Water is really important as chemical reactions in the body would not be able to take place without it. Water helps with carrying around nutrients to the whole body. Water has many other functions some of them include; regulating body temperature, improving bowel function, allows chemical reactions to take place in the body, exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the body and helping medicine to work properly. Having the right amount of water in your body can help reduce constipation, blood clots, low blood pressure, kidney stones and incontinence, there is scientific research to support this. On average an adults recommended daily intake for water is 2 litres a day. Elderly people and young children are more prone to dehydration as they may not know when they are thirsty, or may not ask for a drink when they need one.

Young children (5-12):
At age 5 children tend to grow rapidly and also become very active as they begin school. So children need a sufficient amount of energy and balanced diet that provides all the vital nutrients that they need for growth and development. A 5 year olds appetite and capacity at this age may be very little; in this case it is even more essential that a child had all the right nutrients they need throughout the day. Children’s eating habits at this age mostly depend on their family’s eating habits however as the child gets older they may experience different things and come across different diets that they prefer, this can be positive or negative e.g. someone may choose to become a vegan. As children get older, their friends in school can impact their diet as they eat what their friends eat. With a basic understanding of the importance of a healthy diet, children can make better choices.

Discuss similarities and differences in the nutritional and energy requirements of two groups of individuals
M1
These tables were taken directly from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/vitamins_their_functions_and_sources-health/article_em.htm
Bibilography
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Also Health and social care level 3 book, Beryl Stretch/ Mary Whitehouse
Full transcript