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8th Grade: Music

Let's explore 20th century Music.
by

Kelly Seacrest

on 13 January 2014

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Transcript of 8th Grade: Music

The Blues is a musical form and a musical genre
The Blues began in
African American
Communities
in the deep south
during the late
part of the 19th century.
Robert Johnson was an early
influential delta blues artist.


The blues form have specific chord progressions. The most notable is the twelve-bar blues chord. The blues form is found in other types of music as well because it started before them. These other types of music, such as jazz and rock and roll, emerged from the blues.

There are many sub genres within the blues genre. These sub genres include Delta, Piedmont, Jump and Chicago blues styles. These are just a few styles, and their origins and popularity depend on the time period in the United States.


Many people when they think of the word Blues, also think of the emotion of sadness and melancholy. The first known published account of the word blues meaning sadness can be found in George Colman's play "Blue Devils" written in 1798. Though the use may be older than this in other cultures. In 1912, Hard Wand's "Dallas Blues" became the first copyrighted blues composition. "Having the blues" or "the blues" is also associated with a depressed mood.
After WWII, the electric guitar made a huge
impact on music, especially the blues.
Bessie Smith was an early blues singer.
Her powerful voice became very popular
and influenced later blues singers like
Etta James.
The origins of the blues

is not clear,
for there was no single event or author
to give credit to. Like many musical forms
and genres, it grew from many people, over
many years in different places. Music
historians have done a lot of research and
theorize that much of the blues comes from African
and African American traditions and inventions, including
African musical forms like the call and response, spirituals,
and the musical inventions that emerged due to American
slavery.
A clear example of how
African culture played a role
in the Blues, is the Akonting. This
instrument is created by the Jola
people who live various countries in
West Africa like Gambia. This instrument
is a precursor to the banjo, an important
instrument to the Blues.
Billie Holiday was considered
both a masterful Jazz singer and Blues
Singer.
Muddy Waters was one of the first
musicians to advocate, play and master
the electric guitar. His Blues recordings
helped inspire later rock and roll artists.
This is a recording of Son House's song
Delta Blues
Blues means what milk does to a baby. Blues is what the spirit is to the minister. We sing the blues because our hearts have been hurt, our souls have been disturbed.
Alberta Hunter
I wanna show that gospel, country, blues, rhythm and blues, jazz, rock 'n' roll are all just really one thing. Those are the American music and that is the American culture.
Etta James
I been in the blues all my life. I'm still delivering 'cause I got a long memory.
Muddy Waters
People don't understand the kind of fight it takes to record what you want to record the way you want to record it.
Billie Holiday
"The Blues are the roots,
everything else is the fruits"
-Willie Dixon
"My guitar is my torch, my soul carries the flame. Make no mistake, I'm a true blues man.

Big Bill Morganfield
Music is your own experience, your own thoughts, your wisdom. If you don't live it, it won't come out of your horn. They teach you there's a boundary line to music. But, man, there's no boundary line to art.

Charlie Parker
This is a Muddy Waters song
called " I Feel So Good."
This is a Bessie Smith song
called Muddy Water
This is a song by Etta James
called "At Last"
Rock and Roll Grew Out of the Blues and Jazz
Rock n Roll originated in the United States during the 1940s
and 1950s. It grew out of the Blues, country, jazz and gospel music.
Rock and Roll is called Rock n Roll because many early gospel, jazz, and
blues artists used it to describe upbeat music. Maurie Orodenker was perhaps the first to use to as a name for a genre when she was writing about Sister Rosetta Tharpe's music for magazine articles.
Early rock n roll musicians include Sister Rosetta Tharpe, Elvis Presely (on of the most famous musicians of all time), Carl Perkins, Little Richard, Bill Haley & His Comets, and Buddy Holly
Rock and roll music, if you like it, if you feel it, you can't help but move to it. That's what happens to me. I can't help it.'
Elvis Presley
The development of rock and roll, like almost all music and art forms, was an evolutionary process. We can't say that a single musician or a single record was the start. But there are notable early rock n rollers.
Rock's so good to me. Rock is my child and my grandfather.
Chuck Berry
R&B and Pop grew out of the blues
and Jazz, and grew up right along side
to Rock and Roll. They influenced each other in
many ways.
Aretha Franklin is one of the 20th century's
most famous singer. She made music in many genres,
including R&B, Soul, and Pop. Her song RESPECT, became
an instant hit.
Popular songs at this time, during the late and early 1960s, started to more explicitly share the singers view points on different issues.
Janis Joplin in in the 1960s was known as the Queen of Rock
n Roll. Her rebellious style, her powerful bluesy voice and
electric stage prescence continues to influence women
singer song writers.
Joni Mitchell, a singer songwriter from Canada,
quickly became famous in the United States for her
original and brilliant songs. Her songs helped define the youth
generation of the 1960s and 70s.
Considered one of the greatest guitar players,
Carlos Santana, a Mexican American, became famous
during the late 1960s with his fusion of latin, jazz and rock
music.
Buffy Sainte-Marie, a Canadian Cree singer-songwriter, became
international known through her music and activist work on behalf
of indigenous and native people in the Americas.
Considered by many the greatest electric guitar player
in history, Jimi Hendrix rose to fame quickly in the United States.
Hendrix is one of the most famous African American musicians. He toured all over, and his performance at the music festival in Woodstock was considered a defining moment in music history.
Bob Dylan's songs mirrored the social, political and
emotional unrest of the 1960s. His songwriting has influenced
artists from all different backgrounds, and he has
become an icon of the music scene of the 1960s.
Marvin Gaye was considered the "King of Motown" and
after breaking away from that recording company, became
a influential R&B musician. His songs became more political and
described life in more detail as he got older.

If you cannot find peace within yourself, you will never find it anywhere else.
Marvin Gaye
Sorrow is so easy to express and yet so hard to tell.
Joni Mitchell
No one is free, even the birds are chained to the sky.
Bob Dylan
Most people are prisoners, thinking only about the future or living in the past. They are not in the present, and the present is where everything begins.
Carlos Santana
“Language and culture cannot be separated. Language is vital to understanding our unique cultural perspectives.

Buffy Sainte-Marie
Don't compromise yourself. You are all you've got.
Janis Joplin

When the power of love overcomes the love of power the world will know peace.
Jimi Hendrix
“If a song's about something I've experienced or that could've happened to me it's good. But if it's alien to me, I couldn't lend anything to it. Because that's what soul is all about.”

Aretha Franklin
Here are just a few examples of musicians who began to have a huge impact during the 1970s.
Landslide by Fleetwood Mac
Police and Thieves by The Clash
One Love by Bob Marley
ABCs by Jackson Five
Killing me Softly by Roberta Flack
I Will Survive by Gloria Gaynor
Higher Ground by Stevie Wonder
Heart of Glass by Blondie
Bohemian Rhapsody by Queen
The Jackson Five was inspired by James Brown
and the Motown, R&B groups that came before. These
records were used by DJs in the 1970s to mix the break
beates together to create a new rhythm.
Debbie Harry, Also known as Blondie, was good friends
with a graffiti artist named Fab Five Freddy. His influence on her
lead her to record and release a record that included her rapping. It was
one of the first times the entire country was exposed to rapping. "Rapers Delight" was the first.
Kool Herc
Rapping emerged from DJs using the mike to make announcements. Soon, the announcements about where a party was going to be, evolved into playful sentences. The sentences grew to paragraphs, which grew to verses and rhymes. Rapping rapidly became an integral part of Hip Hop. Rapping, like graffiti, was an expression of individuality, of experience, of style, an attitude.
The start of hip hop was taking different songs and using technology to
create something new. This practice continues today when people collaborate, sample other artists, and make remixes.
Stravinsky
The Blues
Rhapsody in Blue
Jazz
The electric guitar
Rock n Roll
R&B
Hip Hop
Music has been a part of human life for thousands
and thousands of years. Musical traditions arose with
the visual arts, and both seem to have emerged before
writing. It was an essential part of human expression
and continues in all cultures to inspire people. We are going
to be exploring the 20th century history of music for inspiration
MUSIC
for inspiration
1960s
1970s
Contemporary Music
Just as humans began to create artwork, they also
began to create musical instruments. Probably before
any cave painting was completed, humans were already
singing. Noise, sounds and music play a vital role in human
life and culture. There is always something inspiring to be
found in music.
Remember, you can make art about anything. Art is a way
to explore, to investigate, and to play.

Not only are we going to be learning about different
art techniques and practicing our material, creativity and
critical thinking skills, we are going to be learning about the
20th century history of music. By looking into the past,
everyone will hopefully have a better understanding of today's
music. Remember, everything has a past, and the better we
understand the history of something, the more we will
understand the present of that thing.

We could have started in lots of different places, but I have
chosen the one and only Igor Stravinsky.
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky 17 June 1882 – 6 April 1971) was a Russian, and later French and American composer, pianist and conductor. He is widely considered to be one of the most important and influential composers of the 20th century. His work continues to be played and continues to influences musicians. Igor Stravinsky wrote The Firebird Suite for a ballet in 1910. It was his breakout work of art that put him on the world stage of music.
Stravinsky's Firebird refers to the mythical bird the phoenix, the creature that rises from it's own firey ashes again and again. The song is about life, death, and renewal.
The Project
You are going to be making
paper sculptures. Since we
have listened to Stravinsky's Firebird
suite, we are going to make firebirds,
or as they are called by many, phoenixes.
You are going to be using the paper
you painted, as well as scrap paper.
I have showed you ONE way to make a
paper bird, but there are many different ways.
You can make your firebird any way you like, just
remember is that it has to be 3-D.
Again, artists make art
about a wide range of things,
using a wide range of things. We
are finding inspiration from music,
using paper. Here are some other artworks
that used paper to make sculptures.
Ragtime
Ragtime is an original musical genre which enjoyed its peak popularity between 1897 and 1918. Its main characteristic trait is its syncopated, or "ragged," rhythm. It began as dance music in the red-light districts of African American communities in St. Louis and New Orleans years before being published as popular sheet music for piano.Scott Joplin is considered the father of Ragtime music. He wrote the most famous compositions of Ragtime, including “The Entertainer” and “Maple Leaf Rag.”
Scott Joplin was a composer. So was Igor Stravinsky. Musical composition can refer to an original piece of music, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating a new piece of music. People who practice composition are called composers.
In art, composition refers to the placement of things on the page or canvas,
or space. The "things" are the visual units/objects like a line, a shape, or an image of something. Composition is about creating where things go. In music, its where the notes go, in art, its where the visual stuff goes.
The Project
Inspired by ragtime compositions, where the
piano played a large role, we are going to be
making black and white (like the keys
of the piano) collages- focusing on composition.
You will be tearing, instead of cutting.
Remember, the word composition is used both
in music and art. In art, it means where the art
elements are placed and arranged.
You will be getting one
piece of black paper and
one piece of white paper,
using one, you will tear it
into whatever shapes you want,
and glue them down on the sheet
you don't tear up. So you could have
black pieces on white paper, or white
pieces on black. What you have to keep
in mind is the composition- where
are you going to put those pieces, and
how will that affect the overall image. How
will it change the meaning.
Two things!
1) These can be abstract: meaning
they not have to look like anything
specific that exists in the world. They
might resemble something, but it could be
vague. They can also be very specific, if you
want to make a cat, or a piano, or musical
notes or a bird, go right ahead.

2) Which ever piece of paper you use to
tear up (either the black one or white one)
you can't throw anything away.
During his short life, George Gershwin penned a number of America's most recognizable pieces of music.
Gershwin (1898-1937) died of a brain tumor very
early in his career. Though he lived a short time, his
music, inspired by ragtime, blues, jazz and classical traditions,
continues to inspire people with its signature sounds and innovative
blending of styles.

One of his most famous compositions, Rhapsody in Blue, is played across
America in concert halls and TV screens.
Jazz is a musical style that originated at the
beginning of the 20th century in black communities
in the southern United States. It was born out of a mix
of African and European music traditions.
The Project
There are many types of printmaking, we
will be using relief printmaking. There are two
parts to this project, the individual
and the partner part.

The individual part is; Using a soft plate, you will carve
out a design inspired by Jazz. You will
then print that plate.

The partner part is; You and a partner will print
each other's plates on top of each other
to create a new design. Just like how jazz
musicians play off and with each other, you
will be collaborating with someone else.
SAFETY
CARVE AWAY FROM YOURSELF
The Project
Blues music isn't about escaping reality,
instead, it is about embracing it, the good
and the bad. Blues music comes from real
lived experiences. So to honor that, we
are going to be drawing from life, just like
the Blues draws inspiration from life. What
you draw is up to you.
You will be bringing some personal item
from home to draw, it could be a key chain, a
stuff animal, a piggy bank, a necklace, some kind
of object that means something to you. No
photographs. If you do not bring something,
you will be drawing your hand.
You will be using a view finder
to help you draw. Then, you will
draw it on a blue piece of paper
in pencil. Once you have the contour
lines done, you will be adding value
with blue color pencils.
Directional Mark Making, when you are shading, remember
to go with the shape, to give it shape.
Composition- Is the thing in the middle? the top? Left? Right?
Color- Is the thing a different color than everything else?
Scale- Is it bigger or smaller than everything else?
Text- Are there words and numbers, humans love to read!
Frame/outline- marks something as different, separate
Human Eye- People are drawn and use to looking at eyes
Weird- Something that is really weird, different than everything else
Emphasis: meaning focal point, center of interest. What stands out first, or what stands out the most. What catches your eye, what draws you in, what do yo notice first, what do you keep looking at?
Emphasis
The Electric Guitar: The solution
to create a louder guitar noise

Since 1931, It has become the focal point in a lot of different types of music.

In art, creating a focal point also means creating emphasis.

Emphasis means creating a focal point,
the thing you look at first.
Example 1
Example 2.
Example 3
Example 4
Example 5
How do you create
emphasis?
The Project
Perspective means two things.
First, it can mean your point of view
or your opinion on something. In the
world of drawing, it also refers to a
drawing technique where you recreate
how the human eye sees an object
in space.

This project is called, "Your 'Perspective'
on Respect."
You will be using the technique of
perspective to write the word
"Respect" in honor of Aretha Franklin's
song "Respect."
You will then add your "perspective" on
respect by creating your very own
definition.
The Project
You will be making a portrait
of one of these important musicians
that began and or worked during
the 1960s, a time of great social
upheaval and change.
You will pick which
person you want to
do a portrait of. Using
a black and white photograph,
you will be griding the photograph
to help you draw it.
You will grid
the photo, make
a grid on a white
piece of paper, draw
square by square.
You will then trace
your drawing on
another piece of paper
where you will paint
your picture.
You have all
practiced using a
grid to help you draw
to get the right
size and placement, in
other words, proportion
The Project
Graffiti grew out of the same place, time
and culture as hip-hop. It was inspired by
the hip hop music, break dancing, and the
general environment of a new way of expression. Like
rapping, it was about self-expression.
Graffiti, like hip hop, has evolved and changed. Street art, at first
considered an eye sore, has been appropriated into a wider sense
of high art. Street art for many is still about self-expression, but
it can also be about making something beautiful, injecting some weird
into the every day, asking questions about public space, and starting a
serious conversation about an issue you care about.
Through stencils and
spray paint, we are going
to be using street art
to say something about
an issue you care about.
Facundo Cabral was an Argentinian singer and philosopher. He was
very popular in many South American countries. He was known for his
optimism and dedication to world peace. In 1966, the United Nations declared him a "messenger of peace." He was murdered in 2011 in Guetamala.
Ahmad Zahir is one of the most famous
people from Afghanistan. He was a
prolific musician making over 30 albums in
10 years. He was murdered because he held
different political views than that of the government.
Ravi Shankar is one of the world's most famous musicians. He
is trained in classical Indian music and he is an expert at the musical
instrument the sitar. He has traveled all over the world sharing his music
and developing relationships between cultures and traditions.
"Every morning is good news, every child that is born is good news, every just man is good news, every singer is good news, because every singer is one less soldier." Facundo Cabral
I believe in one thing: that anyone who is able to do something good for someone, I mean, should be praised.
Ravi Shankar

with beautiful love
the world is very small
-Ahmad Zahir

Mavis Staples is a famous singer and activist. Her group, the Staples Sisters, played a role in the civil rights movement. She was close friends with Martin Luther King Jr. She sang gospel and blues music and still records music today.
"He wanted me to stop singing! And I told him I was singing before I met him. It was just a man thing, just want me at home. No way! I keep my songs and I continue to sing, and I let you go."
Mavis Staples
The Project
The context, the historical, societal, cultural context (what is happening) plays a huge role in what kind of music is created. During the 1960s and 1970s, people were fighting for equal rights along a number of interconnected fronts (race, gender, etc.) The music helped create new thinking, as well as responding to new ways of thinking. Inspired by the political posters of the 1960s, we are going to make our own political posters.
What issues do you care about? What is going
on in the world today that you would like to see
change? What are some issues that are affecting
you? Think about an issue you care about. The first step
of this project is to research an issue you care about.
The second step is to design a stencil
that conveys how you feel about that issue.
The third step is to cut out your stencil.
The fourth step is to use it!
Explain how a past genre or musician influenced
or was a precusor (helped cause or start) to your
chosen genre or musician.

Do you think its important to study history,
why or why not?

Do you think your final project is creative.
Explain why. If you don't think it is creative, explain
why and what you could do differently in the future.
Full transcript