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Terrence Tam

on 3 June 2014

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Transcript of Evolution

What is Evolution?
Evidence For Evolution
Evidence Against Evolution
Endless Debate
Credibility of Evolution
Evolution is a well-substantiated explanation (or theory) of how living organisms have changed or evolved progessively throughout generations to the way they are today. Therefore, it is advocated by some scientists, becomes well known, and is taught at school. Yet, evolution is a theory that has not been proven in indisputable manner. Under such uncertainty, some choose to believe in creationism. Evolution is a possibility even with some evidence. Thus, this presentation will discuss evolution, its development, its support,its disagreements, its arguements and its credibility. So, how credible is evolution?

Evolution is the change of inherited traits of living species over past generations . In particular, when reproducing a new organism from the parent(s), genetic errors may happen due to mutations when the child copies the DNA of the parents. Besides, both breeding and crossbreeding of two animals can also make changes when reproducing a new organism. This is because a half of each of the two parents' DNA will be used to make a member of a new generation.
Natural selection

can be accomplished by adaptation in which a feature(s) within a
variety is selected as
the best for a given environment and survival.
Natural Selection and Artificial Selection
Types of Evolution
Charles Darwin
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
During the early 19th century, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed his theory of the transmutation of species which was the first fully formed theory of evolution. Lamarck did not believe that all living things shared a common ancestor like most Evolutionists today. Rather, he believed that some organisms would become more complex over its life time.
In 1858, Charles Darwin published a new theory of evolution “On the Origin of Species”. Unlike Lamarck, Darwin created the idea of the tree of life and that all species could share a common ancestor. The theory was based on the idea of natural selection, and it created a large range of evidence from animal farming, geographical distribution, fossils, organism structures, and reproduction.
The history of evolution started ever since the Middle Ages, but was not studied much until the early 19th century. Evolution had many theories unlike the one today, but some people do accept those theories.
Gregor Johann Mendel
During the 1920s and 1930s, Mendelian founded the new discipline of population genetics, which uses sophisticated mathematical and computational models to analyze the factors of natural selection, mutation, genetic drift and gene flow. The genetic drift is the genetic composition change of a population due to chance. The gene flow is the transfer genes from one population to another. The study of fossils and the features of different species allowed more detailed reconstructions of the history of life.
There are some common evidences for evolution. Some include the universal genetic code, the fossil record, common traits in embryos, and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Although these evidences may be convincing, it does not mean that evolution is true.
The genetic code is the basic unit of genetic inheritance in genes of DNA used in making proteins of an organism. All cells on Earth are capable of decoding any piece of DNA from any life form on Earth. Human beings have similar genes in common with and other organisms. This proves that people may have shared a common ancestor in the past. Since the genes or genetic code are common to all life, evolutionists argue that there must be a common ancestor from which they descended.
The Universal Genetic Code
Fossils found in the sedimentary rock shows how organisms have changed through history. The simplest fossils will be found in the oldest rocks. Thus, evolutionists argue that more complex life form was evolved gradually and smoothly from simpler life form.
The Fossil Record
Humans, dogs, snakes, fish, monkeys, eels (and many more life forms) are all considered vertebrates because all these life forms have gill slits, tails, and specific internal structures involving the spine. For humans (and other non-fish) the gill slits reform into the bones of the ear and jaw at a later stage in development. But, initially, all of their embryos somewhat resemble each other. In fact, pig embryos are often dissected in biology classes because of how similar they look to human embryos. Evolutionists say all organisms descended from a common ancestor.
Common Traits in Embryos
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics can be built up through evolution because of the random nature of mutations. When an antibiotic is applied, it will kill most bacteria, leaving behind only those few cells which happen to have the mutations necessary to resist the antibiotics. Through many generations, the resistant bacteria reproduce, forming a new colony where every member is resistant to the antibiotic. Natural selection is choosing which organism which is best suited for survival.
Darwin's theory of evolution is a scientific explanation of how organisms have developed through natural selection and variation over time from the common ancestor to the modern organisms. What is taught in classrooms is not only microevolution but macroevolution. There is evidence that microevolution is true, but macroevolution remains for debate. Many evolutionists are trying to convince people that life evolved from simpler creatures to more complex life forms.
Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics
A fossil is the preserved remains of a living thing. So far, scientists are unable to find sufficient intermediates in fossils to prove macroevolution of any kind from one species to another. For example, trilobites, the now-extinct sea creature, were one of the earliest types of complex creatures on the earth. Trilobite fossils are found around the earth, and in all sedimentary rock below them, there are no other creatures with similar features.
Unable to Find Intermediates
When there is no real evidence, evolutionists simply make assumptions. In Darwin's book On the Origin of Species there are some 800 subjective clauses, such as "could," "perhaps" and "possibly", with uncertainty repeatedly admitted instead of proof. Evolution is still called a theory—a possible explanation or assumption—because it is not testable according to the scientific method or repeatable and observable by a controlling the environment, as this may require thousands or millions of years.
The law of biogenesis in biology states that only life can produce life. The dilemma is a chicken-and-egg problem. An egg comes from a chicken, yet the chicken comes from an egg. So the problem of the origin of life and initial reproduction is still a mystery that evolutionary science cannot adequately answer.
A good example of this is the relationship between bees and flowers. The bees need the nectar from some types of flowers to feed while these flowers need bees to pollinate them. Both depend on each other to exist and survive.
Dependent Relationship
Until people prove evolution scientifically, there will be constant debate on whether evolution is true or not. However, evolution is not a provable theory according to the current research data. However, creationism can answer all these questions but is not science. The Creator is believed to create the earth but is does not make sense if he would come from nothing. In other words, creationism cannot be proved either.
In 2006, adults in thirty-two countries were asked to the assertion, “Human beings developed from earlier species of animals” by answering whether it is true or false or were unsure. Now, this statement is flatly true: genetic and fossil evidence shows that humans descend from a primate lineage that split off from our common ancestor with the chimpanzees roughly seven million years ago. Only 40 percent of all Americans judge evolution is true. And 39 percent say it is false. However 21 percent of all Americans are unsure .
Evolution is a theory that is not completely provable yet can be possible. Since evolution has not ocurred so it is still a theory for debate. Evolution's credibility depends on whether they think it is not convincing, convincing,or thought to be a fact.
I dont know, I don't care, there's ferrets in my underwear!
Artificial selection
is when two animals of different kinds are crossbred whether by breeders or by chance.

When one living thing needs another different living thing to survive there is a dependent relationship.
There are two ways for creating a new variety: natural selection, and artificial selection.
Tribolites in sedimentary rock.
Darwin's tree of life.
refers to small differences from the predecessor, but of the same species. In fact, micro-evolution can be seen in many places because every living organism of the same kind is a bit different. New characteristics may result from DNA mutations and natural selection.
refers to the changing of one species into another species. However, many lines of evidence, reconstruct the "trunk" of the tree of life. For example, fish might descend from an invertebrate animal, or
whales might descend from a land mammal.

Peppered moth evolution
i like cheese
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