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The Safavid Empire
Transcript of The Safavid Empire
The Safavid Empire lasted from 1501-1722 AD.
Located in what is known today as Iran.
It was founded by a Sufi order that is known as the Safavid.
The majority of the population was farmers and townspeople.
The Safavids were part of the Gunpowder Empires which also included the Ottomans and Mughal.
Art & Architecture
Types of Art
: a system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god.
The main source of income was from the trading.
The shahs took an active role in trade and manufacturing activity.
Jackson J. Spielvogel, Dinah Zike (2010), The Rule of the Safavids, retrieved from U.s. History Book pg. 492-495
BBC (2009, September 7), Safavid Empire, Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/safavidempire_1.shtm
Shapour Ghasemi (2014), History of Iran: Safavid Empire 1502-1736, Retrieved from http://www.iranchamber.com/history/safavids/safavids.php
Boundless (2014), Safavid Dynasty, Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/art-history/islamic-art/the-ottoman-safavid-and-mughai-dynasties/safavid-dynasty/
By: Molly Police
Problems That Occurred
Impacts of Trade
Impacts on the Empire
Religion & State
was the first ruler
took control of Iran and Iraq
sent preachers to different areas to convert members of the Ottoman Empire
declared independence against the Ottoman Empire
: was the fifth ruler
modernized the military
moved the capital, Isfahan, deeper into Persia's heartland
established a policy of tolerance against the Christians
Types of Architecture
The religion of the empire was Shi'ism
Shi'ism: a member of one of the two great religious divisions of Islam that regards Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad, as the legitimate successor of Muhammad, and disregards the three caliphs who succeeded him.
In the early eighteenth century, Afghan peoples took control of the capital Esfahan, or Isfahan.
By October that same year, 80,000 people living in the capital had starved or died from disease.
Reza Abbasi- an important artist who, through his calligraphy and painting, influenced many Iranian artists for much of the Safavid period.
During the seventeenth century, increased contact with different cultures lead to a boost of creativity for Iranian artists.
Some prominent examples of Safavid architecture:
Courtyards with four iwans, each with a rectangular frame with elaborate designs
Intricate geometric and organic designs
Tiers of muqarnas
Domes that are slightly pointed
Things that were traded:
During the 16 century, satire was the driving force for most paintings during this time period.
- The Safavids used the Silk Road to transport their goods.
Battle of Chaldiran (1514
- The battle was between The Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire.
- The Ottoman Empire defeated their opponents and gained control over eastern Anatolia and northern Iraq.
The government paid Persian religious scholars to mention the Safavid ruler during Friday sermons.
The state forced people to convert by using education and religious practicing.
The Safavids also spent money to promote religion.
Leaders that contributed
Abbas I- killed anyone who was eligible to take the thrown for fear of being usurped.
When he died, his weak grandson took the thrown and was used by state officials.
rarely had religious or political power
limited opportunities in art and education
isolation and veiling were forced upon all, especially the elite
lost independence if they lived in conquered cites and were of Turkish or Mongol decent
were dominate at home
opportunity of political and religious power
opportunity of education
fought in military
-Before the religion was converted to Shi'ism, the population was mostly Sunni.
-During the conversion, the Sunni ulama either left the empire or were killed.
made grants to shrines and religious schools.
- used grants of land and money to create a new class of wealthy religious aristocrats, who owed everything to the state.
-The Safavids persecuted all other religions including Sunni Muslims and Shi'ites with different views.
-Other religious shrines were vandalized.
-Sufi mystic groups were forbidden.
Their growing wealth was from the trade between Europe and the Islamic civilizations of central Asia and India.
The Safavid Empire focused on defending themselves against invaders.
In the 1580s, the Ottomans attacked
the Safavids. Azerbaijan and the Caspian Sea was now under the control of the Ottoman Empire.
-This lead Abbas I to sign a peace treaty which resulted in the loss of much of his territory in the northwest.
- Most goods were transported by the use of
horses or camel caravans.
Now that Shi'ism is a state religion, with major educational establishments devoted to it, its philosophy and theology increased greatly during the Safavid Empire.
- The most famous artist of this time period was Reza Abbasi.
- Safavid paintings were dominated by soft colors and flowing movement.
There was pressure for people to conform to traditional religious beliefs, also know as orthodoxy.
In the late 16 century, cheap silver caused an inflation in Iran.
The trading of silk became mismanaged after the death of Abbas I which resulted in the decline of overland trade.
- This lead to an unsolvable problem for funding the army and the bureaucracy.
The Safavid government was strict.
It was ruled by the Shah; but the Vizier technically controlled the government.
-body of officials and administrators, especially of a government or government department.
Detailed architecture was prominent in mosques.
Many of the bureaucrats were Turks.
The majlis-nivis was an important role in Safavid bureaucracy.
- The Vizier made all the administrative decisions and usually had more power than the Shah did.
When a Shah dies, his sons would try to kill each other so one of them could be the next ruler.
His dynasty and its successors were unable to restore imperial authority to the Safavid Empire.
Nadir Khan Afshar- an adventurer who emerged from the empire's turmoil as shah in 1736.
The Safavid Shahs became complacent and corrupt.
The problems of the division of spiritual and political authority is something that Iran is still working out to this day.
The Safavid Empire rapidly built the foundations of a strong central government and administration.
The arts prospered during the reign of Abbas I.
17 century carpets epitomized the height of the arts.
They had trouble affording materials, like firearms.
The military started out strong but eventually weakened.
- The roads were monitored for thieves and bandits.