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The 13 Colonies
Transcript of The 13 Colonies
and again in 1664 by the Duke of York.New york was part of
the Middle Colony. New York was orginally founded by the Dutch and it was named New Netherland. To encourage farming, Dutch officials granted large parcels of land to a few rich families. Owners of these huge estates were called patroons. By 1664, the rivalry between England and the Netherlands for trade and colonies was intense. In August of that year, English warships entered New Amsterdam's harbor. Peter Stuyvesant, the governor of New Netherland, swore to defend the city. However, he had few weapons and little gunpowder and was was not very popular among the citizens of New Netherland. In the end, he surrendered without firing a shot. King Charles II of England then gave New Netherland to his brother, the Duke of York. He renamed the colony New York in the duke's honor. Pennsylvania Pennsylvania was founded in 1770 by William Penn. Pennsylvania was part of the Middle Colony . It was founded because English Quakers and other European settlers seeking freedom and equality needed a place to go where they wouldn't be forced to follow the Christian religion. To most English people, Quaker beliefs seemed wicked. In both England and New England, Quakers were arrested, fined, or even hanged for their ideas. They wanted to go somewhere where they would be able to practice their own religion freely. Penn believed that the land in North America belonged to the Indians. He insisted that settlers should pay for the land. Native Americans respected him for this policy. As a result, Pennsylvania colonists enjoyed many years of peace with their Indian neighbors Maryland was founded in 1634 by Cecil Calvert(Lord Baltimore). It was part of the Southern Colony. Maryland was truly a land of plenty. Chesapeake Bay was full of fish, oysters, and crabs.It was founded for the people who wanted to practice their Catholic religion freely. Cecil's father, Sir George Calvert, had turned into a Roman Catholic, but he had ruined his life by doing so he wanted to build a colony where you could practice your religion freely. But, he died before he could fulfill his wish, so his son Cecil, completed his dream. To make sure Maryland continued to grow, Lord Baltimore welcomed Protestants as well as Catholics to the colony.Later, Lord Baltimore came to fear that Protestants might try to deprive Catholics of their right to worship freely. In 1649, he asked the assembly to pass an Act of Toleration. The law provided religious freedom for all Christians. As in many colonies, this freedom did not extend to Jews. Massachusetts Massachusetts was a New England colony.Massachusetts was founded in 1630 by John Winthrop and the Puritans. The Puritans were a powerful group in England. Although some were small farmers, many were well-educated and successful merchants or landowners. The Puritans came to the New World seeking escape from religious persecution and so that they could freely practice their own version of the religion. Unlike the Pilgrims, the Puritans did not want to separate entirely from the Church of England. Instead, they hoped to reform the church by introducing simpler forms of worship.The Puritan leaders did not like anyone to question their religious beliefs or the way the colony was governed. Usually, discontented colonists were forced to leave. Some colonists who left Massachusetts founded other colonies in New England. Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson discovered Rhode
Island in 1647. Many people liked Williams. But, his ideas alarmed the people. He said that the Puritans Church had too much power. He thought that the church didn't have the right to force people to attend religious services. He also believed on religious tolerance. In 1635, he was forced to leave the colony by the General Court. He went to live with the Indian in Narragansett Bay for the winter. He didn't want to go back to England. The Indians sold him a piece of land for a settlement, which later became known as the Rhode Island Colony. Soon enough, those who didn't like the way things were in Massachusetts fled to Rhode Island. There was complete freedom of religion and all white men were allowed to vote. Anne Hutchinson was one of the people who came to this colony. She had started to teach the other colonists about religion in her own house. The leaders were angered by this. They thought her teachings were full of religious errors. In November of 1637, she was ordered to come to Court. They questioned her wfor two whole days. Hutchison's answer always proved the Court weaker. But, Anne Hutchinson made one grave mistake, she said that god spoke directly to her. They all believed that god only spoke through the Bible and not to individual so she was sent our to Rhode Island and was shunned by others. Connecticut Colonies Thomas Hooker founded the Connecticut Colonies in the year 1636. They were part of the New England Colony. They had founded this place in order to gain religious freedom. He wanted a government with the free consent of the people. Hooker led about 100 people away from Massachusetts Bay. They went westward, taking their goats, pigs , and cattle along with them. After reaching the Connecticut River, they built a colony called Hartford. Hooker was tired of the government in Massachusetts, he wanted to create a government with limited government power. The settlers wrote a plan for the government in 1639. It was called the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. It was similar to the government plan from Massachusetts. It had two differences though, all men who owned property were allowed to vote. Even those who weren't members of the church. Another differnece was that this plan expanded on a representative government because it limited the governor's power. In 1662, Connecticut became a seperate colony due to the new charter given by the King of England. By this time, there were a total of 15 settlements along the Connecticut River, which were part of this new colony. New Hampshire John Wheelright had founded this colony in 1638. It was part of the New England Colony. He founded it because of trade and agriculture. As well as economics. John Wheelwright was a Puritan that was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the Antinomian Controversy. He established the town of Exeter, New Hampshire. Wheelwright's stay in Exeter lasted only a few years, because Massachusetts activated an earlier claim on the lands there, forcing the banished Wheelwright to leave. He went further east, to Wells, Maine, where he was living when his order of banishment was retracted, though it was done in a way that still placed guilt upon him.Wheelwright's stay in Exeter lasted only a few years, because Massachusetts activated an earlier claim on the lands there, forcing the banished Wheelwright to leave. He went further east, to Wells, Maine, where he was living when his order of banishment was retracted, though it was done in a way that still placed guilt upon him. Delaware This colony was founded in 1701, by the settlers from the lower county's. It was lead by Peter Minuit. It was a part of the Middle Colony. This colony was founded for political reasons. And, it was founded for trade and profits. For some time, Delaware was a part of the Lower County's in Pennsylvania. The settlers of this region, didn't approve of sending thier people to a far away assembly in Philadelphia. In 1701, William Penn allowed the people of this region to elect their own assembly. Later, in the year 1704, the Lower County's of Pennslyvania broke away. They then formed the colony of Delware. North Carolina It was originally founded in 1663 by eight English Nobles who had recieved a grant from the King. They had started to colonize in two seperate parts of this land. Which became known as North and South Carolina.This colony was founded by the settlers from Virginia in 1712. This colony was part of the Southern Colony. It was founded due to economic reasons. The people who came to live in this colony, North Carolina, were mostly poor farmers, who farmed tabacco. They mostly had small farms. They had come to live here because they had just drifted south from Virginia. South Carolina It was originally founded in 1663 by eight English Nobles who had recieved a grant from the King. They had started to colonize in two seperate parts of this land. Which became known as North and South Carolina.Friends of King Charles had founded this Colony in 1719. It was part of the South Colony. They had founded it for economic reasons. Farther south, from North Carolina, this colony was set up. It was much larger than North Carolina. It was the largest settlement. It was called Charles Town for a while. It was located where the Ashley and Cooper rivers met up. After some time, Charles Town was chortened to Charleston. Then, it beacme South Carolina. Many of the first settlers in this colony were people who came from a British Colony in the Caribbean. It was a called Barbados. Later, other people came to live here too, for example, Germans, Swiss, French Protestants, and Spanish Jews. Close to the 1685, the settlers started to notice that rice grew well near the coast of the colony. Soon enough, this crop was traded all throughout the world. The colonists were waiting for slaves from Africa to arrive, in order to grow and maintain the crops. They had also learned to grow a very valuable crop called Indigo. It was used to make dye. They used African Americans. Soon enough the populations of the slaves, was more than twice of the colonists. It was the only Engllish coloony, where slaves made up most of the population. New Jersey Virginia Georgia This colony was founded in originally in 1609, by the Dutch, Herny Hudson. Soon, the Dutch lost controll over the New World. King Charles the 2nd gave this piece of land to his brother. It was re-founded in 1664, by Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. In the year 1664, James, the Duke of York, had gained control of New Netherland. New Jersey, was the land that he granted to two of his friends, Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. These two people advertised this land to everyone told them the great things of the place. For example, they told them about Freedom of religion, and a representative government. The colony had a major growth in population. Eventually, the Quakers made their own sides of this land, East and West Jersey. In the end, these two parts were joined back together as one by the crown in 1702. This colony was a southern colony. The original Jamestown Colony, was a part of the Virginia Colony. It was founded in 1607 by the Virginina Company. There were about 105 men and boys who came to the Jamestown Colony, mostly to pay off debt. But, tragically, many of them ended up dying, die to several reasons. John Smith was the leader of the colonists. The Virginia Company had actually set out to claim land in the New World. They new that Spain, thier rival, had already done so. They wanted to have land here just as the Spanish. had done. The colonists started to grow tabacco as a crop. They made money this way and sold their tabacco. The colony was named after the "Virgin Queen", Queen Elizabeth. After seeing that the Colony wasn't doing very well, the King turned this colony into a crown colony in 1624. This colony was the last and 13th colony to be established in the New World. It was founded in 1733 by James Oglethorpe, who was a prison reformer. It was founded so that the other colonies would have protection from Florida, which was claimed by Spain. It was also founded in order to serve as a place where prisoners could stay. It was supposed to relieve the congestion in prisons. It did solve this problem. James Oglethorpe brought along 35 families to Georgia. As time went by, the colonists didn't grow any happier. They were dissapointed and didn't like the rules that were set for them in Georgia. James Oglethorpe, who was governor, went back to England to the King with their demands. They wanted to be able to have alchohol and wanted to be allowed to own slaves.This colony was growing very slowly in population due to these restrictions. Thier wishes were fulfilled. In the year 1749, the Georgia Colony became a slave colony. Soon, the population of the colony boomed. It was still the least populated colony at the time of the American Revolution. Citations 13 Originals. (n.d.). The TimePage - Cycles in U.S. History. Retrieved September 29, 2012, from http://www.timepage.org/spl/13colony.html Davidson, J. W., & Stoff, M. B. (2003). The American nation (Teacher's ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall in Association with American Heritage. Georgia Founded. (n.d.). American History and World History at Historycentral.com the largest and most complete history site on the web. Retrieved September 29, 2012, from http://www.historycentral.com/TheColonies The founding of Virginia - North Carolina Digital History. (n.d.). LEARN NC. Retrieved September 29, 2012, from http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-colonial/2029 The founding of Virginia - North Carolina Digital History. (n.d.). LEARN NC. Retrieved September 29, 2012, from http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-colonial/2029