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Project Defense, M.S. Conflict Resolution

Presentation for my project defense, in partial fulfillment for my M.S. Degree in Conflict Resolution. Details the literature review, project design, outcomes, and evaluation.

Ashley Marie

on 6 June 2013

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Transcript of Project Defense, M.S. Conflict Resolution

Introduction and Needs Assessment
Literature Review
Peace Education
Course Curriculum
Project Design
Project Outcomes
Conclusion and References Overview Beverly, Jesse, and Jonah Moore
Rodney and Cole Schmuecker
John, Joyce, & Missy Hunt
Gerald and Nancy Schmuecker
Tim and Carol Moore
Zeyaad Moussa
Rozzell Medina
Dr. Amanda Smith Byron
Dr. Rob Gould
Vicki Reitenauer
Dr. Sally McWilliams acknowledgments superhero justice
Chiron studies class Victoria Aguirre
Chloe Caseday
Crystal Chabot
Jason Dillon
Kevin Driscoll
HeyZeus Ermard
Jeremy Garrard
Sam Kalafat
Maika Munske
Toby Nye
Levi Pothier
Elmira Rodriguez
Katlyn Tracy
Michael Weeks
Eben Wood introduction Superheroes have become what Stan Lee (1974) calls “twentieth-century mythology…an entire contemporary mythos, a family of legends that might be handed down to future generations.”

How far reaching is the genre?
Digital and Paperback 2012 $540 million dollars (Miller, 2013; iCv2, 2012)
Film 1978-2013: 93 superhero movies $10 billion dollars with 11 new films to be released by 2015 (Box Office Mojo, 2013)
Video game, "Injustice: Gods Among Us" reported nearly $900,000 in global sales for one week (VGChartz, 2013) introduction Accessibility and Mass consumption + Retributive Justice & Violent Revenge Narratives =
Potent genre that influences and reflects our society in dynamic ways

Who has power over the narratives?
90-95% of writers and artists are men (Hanley, 2013)

Violent masculinity and heroism & retributive or extra-judicial justice as a popular means of resolving conflict

My course explored how rewriting those narratives allow us to imagine nonviolence and restorative justice rewarding alternatives for resolving conflict. needs assessment Brief History
Budget Cut
Chiron Studies Learning Communities
Diverse and Creative
Accessible and Inclusive
Empowering and Liberatory
Highly Collaborative
Experiential and Engaged Absence of courses at PSU and within the Conflict Resolution Program
Exploring media representations of violence, justice and conflict resolution
AND offer a space to imagine and create alternative narratives within the media Literature Review literature review Peace Education Through Chiron Studies: Imagining and Peforming Nonviolence in the Superhero Genre Community Partner
Chiron Studies Program at Portland State University Portland State University Curriculum Peace education: looks at causes and prevention of violence at the interpersonal, social and cultural levels and how violence is valued by society

Myth and story in our culture are tools for maintaining violence, power-over relationships and oppression through "stock stories"

Stock stories:
narratives that are familiar and presented as “normal” to uphold the status quo ex: American Dream (Bell, 2010, p. 29) Knowles (1970) identifies 4 needs of the adult learner:
Self-direction and autonomy
Identity and life experiences brought into the learning
Content is accessible and relevant to their lives
Problem-centered content

Brookfield (1986) offers 6 effective facilitation strategies:
Participation is voluntary
Respect and self worth is fostered
Collaborative learning between facilitators and participants
Engagement in reflection of activities
Critical analysis of culture and society
Opportunities for empowerment and proactive learning literature review Allow space to critique social systems

Acknowledge every one present as human beings rather than passive recipients of knowledge (Freire, 1993; hooks, 1994)

Denial of the body - space and identity (hooks, 1994)

Display care and love
Foster a caring relationship among the learning community
(hooks, 1994; Noddings, 2008; Reardon, 1988) literature review Important Componenets of Peace Education:
Boulding (1988) writes imagination is a skill that allows us to apply to social action (p. 95)

The “recovery of play” for adults is critical for using the skill of social imagination (p. 104).

These elements of play and imagination were central components of my course design and in realizing a purpose of peace education: to envision an intentional reconstruction of the future. History of the superhero genre and comic books Comic books and conflict resolution Intersectional
analysis storytelling for
social change literature review:
curriculum content Roots in ancient mythology and Epic of Gilgamesh, Beowulf and Robin Hood
Early 1900s Popeye, Hugo Hercules, Woman in Red
1938 Action Comics #1 Superman
Mission, Powers, Identity [MPI]
(Coogan, 2006) project design project design

Phillips and Strobl (2006) write
comic book justice has been an inspiration & influence on popular culture, especially for film
we live in a media-saturated world where media begins to constitute social reality itself (p. 306)
comic books “become spaces in public life where the meaning of crime and punishment is created, consumed, and recreated” (p. 307) What is intersectionality?
idea that race, class, and gender (as well as other identities) are interlocking forces (Combahee River Collective, 1977)
related to construction of self-identity and how power, privilege and oppression exist

Why is it important to examine comic books from this lens?
allows us to see how identity is constructed within the superhero stories
how those stories reflect the oppression, power, and privilege of those in our own society Connelly and Clandinin (1990) write that “humans are storytelling organisms who, individually and socially, lead storied lives”

Bell (2010) and the Storytelling Project Model

Storytelling can be used to uncover silenced narratives and imagine new narratives for social change (Chin and Rudelius-Palmer, 2010; Shelton and McDermott, 2010).
Expand my knowledge of peace education and situate it within the broader field of conflict resolution.
Engage in the praxis of peace education through Chiron Studies.
Engage in advocacy to sustain Chiron Studies as a viable program at Portland State University.
Deepen my and others’ understanding of how comic books and superheroes relate to our culture’s understanding conflict resolution, justice, and structural and physical violence.  Bloom's Taxonomy and Learning Objectives (Anderson et al., 2001) Project design grading assignments lesson plans Students will understand and explain theoretical concepts of retributive and restorative justice models and the historical development of comics and superheroes.

Students will think critically about their relationship to larger societal structures such as the criminal justice system and media.

Students will connect the idea of retributive and restorative justice to media superheroes and students will connect the idea of improvisation and performance to imagination and peace building.

Students will perform alternatives to violence through various artistic media.

Students will explore new feelings of understanding for those who have harmed others.

Students will unearth their own philosophy of justice.
In-class Reflection - 3 Minute Papers at 5 points each
In-class Participation – 3 Days at 5 points each
Superhero artistic model – 30 points
Superhero final paper – 40 points Minute Papers
Superhero Design Project
(Origin Story, MPI, Art) Kolb's Learning Styles
Storytelling and Theatre Courses
Facilitate collaborative class agenda project evaluations conclusions References project outcomes: the weekend seminar friday saturday Friday Night Collaborative classroom guidelines
Working definitions - conflict, nonviolence, and violence
Improvisation "Telephone/FaceTime"
"Meeting with a Killer"
Working definitions - retributive and restorative justice
Discussion - superheroes, justice, and violence
Minute Papers Sunday Saturday Check-In
History of Comic Books and the Superhero Genre
"Comic Books Superheroes Unmasked" (2005)
Comic Book Analysis and Small Group Discussion
Alternatives to Violence Batman-Joker Role-Play
Mixed-Media Rewrite Final Projects! CONTRADICTION sunday may 10 finals “Something positive: the style of the class, the vibe of it. I don't sense any competition or discomfort in the community which is refreshing for me.”

“I, as a victim seeking forward movement on some old trauma, am inspired by restorative justice.”

“I thought our discussion today was really engaging and I think it really made me and a lot of other people think critically about our personal ideas about how we define justice.” Minute Paper Reflections from Friday
“Dialogue with Batman and Joker was super difficult to get into, a little more provided background on causes of the anger would help.”

 “I really felt an understanding with the theme of restorative justice when we did the exercise with role playing Batman and Joker. Although a simplistic and sometimes silly feeling dialogue occurred. It was very demonstrative of what background and empathy can do to change and quell conflict.” Minute Paper Reflections for Saturday Sam Kalafat and Kevin Driscoll rewrite Wolverine and Badrock Minute Paper Reflections for Saturday Students engaging in rewrite! “I really liked rewriting the conflicts, and I really loved how in most cases we found ways to resolve them that were not only nonviolent, but stayed true to the characters and would have still been interesting to read.”

Intersectional Analysis: Gender, Race, Sexual Orientation in Comic Books
Mixed-Media Rewrites
Storytelling and Theatre of the Oppressed
Image Theatre
"Performing Nonviolence"
Minute Papers
Closing Activity
“I really enjoyed the power point presentation on race in comics. It was very informative and gave me a lot of ideas for future readings. The conversation on racism and master narratives was really important, and I’m glad that it was incorporated in the class. However, it was honestly a little difficult to sit through. It was also a difficult conversation to have on the last day of class. I noticed the most vocal people during the conversation were white men in the class. I’m wondering if the structure of the conversation made other folks in the room feel hesitant to speak, especially the women in the class.” Katlyn Tracy rewrites Captain America and Cyclops Minute Paper Reflections from Sunday “The most positive and engaging activity we did today was the theater. It was really neat to re-enact conflict in a panel and try to find a nonviolent way to handle the situation. Putting it in action really made the idea of nonviolence stick better because we were actively stopping and refiguring the situation.” Minute Paper Reflections from Sunday MC KAIA Crystal Chabot Sam Kalafat Katlyn Tracy Three Methods of Evaluation - Qualitative

1. Self-Reflection and Assessment of Goals and Objectives
2. Minute Paper Reflections
3. Chiron Studies Evaluation “This weekend was very rewarding. I am taking away a new respect for the art of comics, as well as the art of nonviolent conflict resolution.”
Student reflection
One student wrote they wanted “Better group discussion facilitation,” and, “more structured group discussion with leading questions and the instructor facilitating cohesion between speakers.”

“She was very engaging and validating all opinions, and made a point to allow us to define certain terms on our own. She also managed to keep the entire class session interesting, despite two eight hour class periods. Everyone seemed to be having fun while also participating in very meaningful discussions on creative representations of justice and conflict resolution strategies.”

One student wrote, “I learned more in one weekend than I have in some classes over an entire term at PSU.”

One student wrote that I was “one of the best teachers [they] have had.” What differences did the students observe in taking Chiron Studies courses as opposed to non-Chiron courses at PSU?

Chiron Studies courses are:
open relationship between students and instructors
relaxed learning environment
instructors are passionate
concerned with real world applications

One student wrote, “It is because of these [Chiron Studies courses] I continue school.” Chiron Studies Instructor Feedback Conclusions ashley m. schmuecker literature review introduction and needs assessment Important Components of Peace Education: Goals Anderson, L.W. & Krathwohl, D.R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longman.

Bajaj, M. (2008). Critical peace education. Bajaj, M. Ed. Encyclopedia of peace education. Retrieved from http://www.tc.edu/centers/epe/PDF%20 articles/Bajaj_ch16_22feb08.pdf.

Bell, L. A. (2010). Storytelling for social justice: Connecting narrative and the arts in antiracist teaching. New York: Routledge.

Boal, A. (1998). Legislative theatre: Using performance to make politics. London: Routledge Press.Boulding, E. (1988). Building a global civic culture: Education for an interdependent world. New York: Teachers College Press.

Box Office Mojo. (2013). Superhero. Retrieved from http://www.boxofficemojo.com/genres/chart/?id=superhero.htm.

Chin, K., & Rudelius-Palmer, K. (2010). Storytelling as a relational and instrumental tool for addressing racial justice. Race/Ethnicity: Multidisciplinary Global Perspectives 3(2), 265-281.

Eisler, R. & Miller, R. (Eds.). (2004). Educating for a culture of peace. New Hampshire: Heinemann. Freire, P. (1993). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Texas: Continuum Press.

Galtung, J. (2008). Form and content of peace education. In Bajaj, M. (Ed). Encyclopedia of peace education. Retrieved from http://www.tc.edu/centers/epe/PDF%20 articles/Galtung_ch6_22feb08.pdf.

hooks, b. (1994). Teaching to transgress: Education as the practice of freedom. New York: Routledge.

iCv2. (2012). News: $70 Million in digital comics. Retrieved from http://www.icv2.com/articles/news/23201.html.

Knowles, M. (1970). The modern practice of adult education. New York: Association Press.

Lee, S. (1974). The origin of marvel comics. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Miller, J. J. (2013). Comichron: The comics chronicles. Retrieved from http://www.comichron.com/.

Noddings, N. (2008). Caring and Peace Education. Bajaj, M. (Ed.). In Encyclopedia of peace education. Retrieved from http://www.tc.edu/centers/epe/PDF%20 articles/Noddings_ch10_22feb08.pdf.

Phillips, N.D. & Strobl, S. (2006). Cultural criminology and kryptonite: Apocalyptic and retributive constructions of crime and justice in comic books. Crime Media Culture, 2(3), 304-331.

Shelton, N. R., & McDermott, M. (2010). Using literature and drama to understand social justice. Teacher Development, 14(1), 123-135.

Thomas, R. E. & Rappaport, J. (1996). Art as community narrative: A resource for social change. In Lykes, M. B. et al, (Eds.). Myths about the powerless: Contesting social inequalities. Pennsylvania: Temple University Press.

VGChartz. (2013). Global weekly chart. Retrieved from http://www.vgchartz.com/weekly/41406/Global/.
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