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What Is GIS?

Introduction to geographic information systems (GIS)
by

joshua tootoo

on 14 November 2017

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Transcript of What Is GIS?

Attribute queries are simple database-like queries based on the attribute data of a feature- For example: show all stores with sales volume > $ X .

Spatial queries are unique to GIS. They are queries based on the spatial characteristics of a feature- for example: show all stores in state of Utah.

Displaying geographic data is often the first step in any GIS project. Display is a simple way to understand and explore your data. Carefully studying maps, charts, and graphs can often become the starting point for more complex analysis.
What is a Geographic Information System (GIS)?
people
tools
data
software
spatial information permits organization by location (geography)... and this is handy because it allows us to place data in context, and naturally allows us to question relationships.
Query
Display
Analyze
Create output
http://www.google.com/publicdata/explore?ds=j0r9lucsi4q1d_&ctype=c&strail=false&nselm=h&met_y=crude_rate&fdim_y=cause:GR113%20055-068&fdim_y=race:2054-5&scale_y=lin&ind_y=false&idim=state:05:25:26:27:30:37:49:08&ifdim=state&pit=1136073600000&hl=en&dl=en&iconSize=0.18592426762300596&uniSize=0.034999999999999934
Query
Final products from a GIS:
-Printed map
-Electronic map (interactive or flat)
-Graphics
-Data set for further analysis
The output of a GIS can take many forms.
The output that you choose will depend on the intended audience, the overall message you are trying to communicate, and the needs of the project.
Proximity analysis used to measure distances between objects.
Overlay analysis answers the question: “what is on top of what?”
Network analysis uses network data, such as roads, transit and walking/bike paths to provide trip directions, times and distances
Display
Analyze
Create output
GIS links locational (spatial data) and database information (tabular data) creating opportunities for visualizing patterns, relationships, and trends.
components of geographic data:
attribute- what is it?
spatial- where is it?

hardware
collection of:
store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and display spatial or geographical data
geographic information system

remember Jon Snow?
this John Snow...
provides descriptive (both qualitative and quantitative) attribute information
http://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/maps/gisx/index
this tool handily combines 3 common analyses:
proximity, overlay and network
A common type of map display is the choropleth map ("area/region" +"multitude") where areas are shaded/patterned in proportion to the measurement of the numerical variable being displayed on the map, like heart disease death rates, or popularity of a TV show. A good choropleth map visualizes how a measurement varies across a geographic space and, or it shows the degree of variability within a region.
Displaying geographic data is often the first step in any GIS project. Display is a simple way to understand and explore your data. Carefully studying maps, charts, and graphs can often become the starting point for more complex analysis.
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