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啓蒙運動、士萊馬克、自由神學

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John Chan

on 14 April 2016

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Transcript of 啓蒙運動、士萊馬克、自由神學

Enlightenment
Aufklärung
Baruch Spinoza
René Descartes
Deism
cogito, ergo sum
1632–1677
1596–1650
否定特殊的啓示
宗教改革的影響
Enlightenment is man’s emergence from his self-imposed immaturity.
Kant
Aufklärung ist der Ausgang des Menschen aus seiner selbst verschuldeten Unmündigkeit. Unmündigkeit ist das Unvermögen, sich seines Verstandes ohne Leitung eines anderen zu bedienen. Selbstverschuldet ist diese Unmündigkeit, wenn die Ursache derselben nicht am Mangel des Verstandes, sondern der Entschließung und des Mutes liegt, sich seiner ohne Leitung eines anderen zu bedienen. Sapere aude! Habe Mut dich deines eigenen Verstandes zu bedienen! ist also der Wahlspruch der Aufklärung.
人脱離他自己製造的不成熟
Friedrich Schleiermacher
Encyclopédie
17 volumes of articles, issued from 1751 to 1765
11 volumes of illustrations, issued from 1762 to 1772
18,000 pages of text
75,000 entries
44,000 main articles
28,000 secondary articles
2,500 illustration indices
20,000,000 words in total
creator
world
pantheism
god
自然神論
特殊啓示
神蹟
教條
Supreme Being
創造
reason
theory
science
Divine goodness doth dispense rewards and punishments both in this life and after it.
There is one Supreme God.
He ought to be worshipped.
Virtue and piety are the chief parts of divine worship.
We ought to be sorry for our sins and repent of them
David Hume
1711-1776
Skepticism
懷疑論
不可知論
Empiricism
John Locke
1632–1704
Tractatus Theologico-Politicus
《神學政治論》
荷蘭猶太人
1-15 章
16-20 章
宗教
政治
歷史批判
摩西五經不等於摩西
批判作爲體制的宗教
猶太教的審視
宗教分離
1670
rationalism
理性主義
泛神論
Kant
1724–1804
Immanuel
道德
宗教
=
士萊馬克
1768年 出生在 Breslau(今屬波蘭)
1783年 於 Niesky 就讀莫拉維兄弟會學校
1785年 進入莫拉維兄弟會神學院
1787年 就讀哈勒大學
1794年 通過第二次神學考試成為改革宗牧師
1796年 在柏林任慈善醫院牧師
1799年 出版《宗教講演錄》On Religion
1804年 擔任哈勒大學牧師和神學教授,直到1806年
1805年 出版《聖誕節座談》。
1809年 在三一教會作牧師,與維利希(H.Willich)結婚
1810年 在新的柏林大學任教授,擔任新的神學系首任主任
1815年 成為柏林大學校長
1821年 出版《基督教信仰論》Der Christliche Glaube
1834年 在柏林去世
1768-1834
Das Gefühl der schlechthinnigen Abhängigkeitsbewußtseins
Der christliche Glaube
Christian Faith
絕對
依賴
意識
感受
前言
敬虔意識


世界
世界


創造與護理
永恆、全在、全能、全知


教會論
終末論
恩典
聖潔公義
愛、智慧
三一論
自由神學
liberal theology
Ferdinand Christian Baur
1792–1860
Tübingen School
‘Die Christuspartei in der korinthischen Gemeinde, der Gegensatz des paulinischen und petrinischen Christentums in der ältesten Kirche, der Apostel Petrus in Rom, Tübinger Zeitschrift für Theologie 4 (1831)61ff.
Rome
Paul
Peter
問題多多哥林多
屬基督
Simon Magus
Marcion
Ev. Luke
Ev. Matthew
Acts 8:9–24
1 Cor 1.12
我是保羅派的,我是亞波羅派的,我是磯法派的,我是基督派的。
Gal. 2.12
安提柯事件
猶太
外邦
Pseudo-Clementines
'I feel very confident that the historical views of the Tübingen School are too extravagant to obtain any wide or lasting hold over the minds of men. But even in extreme cases mere denunciation may be unjust and is certainly unavailing. Moreover, for our own sakes we should try and discover the element of truth which underlies even the greatest exaggerations of able men, and correct our impressions thereby.' (Lightfoot )
Ebionite
Johann Salomo Semler (1725–1791) (Kanon-Kritik)
Raymund Dapp (1744–1819)
Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834)
Ferdinand Christian Baur (1782–1860) (Tübinger Schule)
David Friedrich Strauss (1808–1874) (Tübinger Schule)
Albrecht Ritschl (1822–1889)
Wilhelm Herrmann (1846–1922)
Adolf von Harnack (1851–1930)
Walter Rauschenbusch (1861-1918)
Ernst Troeltsch (1865–1923)
Albert Schweitzer (1875–1965)
Hermann Mulert (1879–1950)
Rudolf Bultmann (1884–1976) (bis in die 1920er Jahre)
Paul Tillich (1886–1965)
Fritz Buri (1907–1995)
John A. T. Robinson (1919–1983)
Hans Küng (geb. 1928)
John Hick (1922-2012)
Rudolf Bultmann
William Lane Craig
Thomas C. Oden
James Innell Packer
Francis Schaeffer
Cornelius Van Til
Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield
Maurice Arthur Ponsonby Wood
Nicholas Thomas Wright
Karl Barth
杜平根學派
David Strauss
1808–1874
Das Leben Jesu, kritisch bearbeitet
The Life of Jesus, Critically Examined
textual and historical treatment of the rise of Christianity.
聖經詮釋學
「詮釋學作爲了解的技巧,還沒有普遍地存在,而僅是以多種不同專門的形式出現。」

保羅
聖經
了解
聖經
當保羅寫羅馬書時,保羅在想甚麼?
文化
處境
目的
歷史
語言法則
風格
正確的工具
《路加福音:考據研究》
之誕生
釋經前設
釋經循環
相遇
Gemeingeist
Das Gefühl der schlechthinnigen Abhängigkeitsbewußtseins
(communal spirit)
Albrecht Ritschl
1822–1889
Das Evangelium Marcions und das kanonische Evangelium des Lukas
The Christian Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation
延續士萊馬克的神學
1914 以前最有名的自由派神學家
Adolf von Harnack
1851–1930
十九世紀末/二十世紀初
基督教與社會運動

歐洲只是名義上是基督教地區
唯物主義
物質主義
社會主義
social gospel
- They typically were post-millennialist; that is, they believed the Second Coming could not happen until humankind rid itself of social evils by human effort.
- The Social Gospel movement is a Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the early 20th century United States and Canada.
- "Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven."
Walter Rauschenbusch
1861–1918
社會民主黨
1917
Christlich-soziale Bewegung
北美
歐洲
自由主義
Paul
Peter
法國大革命
Révolution française
1789
Dechristianisation of France
during the French Revolution
背景
Tax
American Revolutionary War
Bankruptcy
Louis XVI
Marie Antoinette
National Assembly
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
divine right of kings
400,000
nobility
The First Estate
The Third Estate
The Second Estate
100,000
Catholic clergy
300
9,500,000
common people
648
300
social equality among citizens
Tennis Court Oath
La Première République
Estate General
Men are born and remain free and equal in rights.
1 week = 10 days
1 day = 10 hours
1 hour = 100 min
1 min = 100 sec
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%B3%95%E5%9C%8B%E5%85%B1%E5%92%8C%E6%9B%86
主日
Guillotine
Terror
法國共和曆
calendrier républicain
凡爾賽婦女大遊行
Journées révolutionnaires des 5 et 6 octobre 1789
斷頭臺
Joseph-Ignace Guillotin
10 October 1789
"Now, with my machine, I cut off your head in the twinkling of an eye, and you never feel it!"
取消什一奉獻
11/8/1789
反教會
國家管理教會
1790
神職人員公民憲法
斷絕與羅馬教廷的關係
25000-30000
神職人員宣誓
武力鎮壓對抗的神職人員
入獄、被捕、驅逐
1792 年 9 月 2 日
巴黎監獄大屠殺 1400死
231 神職人員
1792-1795
離婚合法化
取消神職人員獨身制度
無神論:理性與自然
1792-1806
Napoleon
Theophilanthropes
1798
40000 教區恢復崇拜
1802
政教協定
1804
拿破崙加冕皇帝
教會的法律基礎
教會失去過往的特權
Pius VII
“If you do not perceive that Jesus Christ is God, very well, then I did wrong to make you a general.”
“The Bible is no mere book, but a Living Creature, with a power that conquers all that oppose it.”
“I know men; and I tell you that Jesus Christ is not a man. Superficial minds see a resemblance between Christ and the founders of empires, and the gods of other religions. That resemblance does not exist. There is between Christianity and whatever other religions the distance of infinity...”
如果我 XX 日内失去聯絡,
你們就把我廢掉.....
Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834)
Ferdinand Christian Baur (1782–1860) (Tübinger Schule)
David Friedrich Strauss (1808–1874) (Tübinger Schule)
Albrecht Ritschl (1822–1889)
Adolf von Harnack (1851–1930)
Walter Rauschenbusch (1861-1918)
Ernst Troeltsch (1865–1923)
Albert Schweitzer (1875–1965)
Rudolf Bultmann (1884–1976) (bis in die 1920er Jahre)
Paul Tillich (1886–1965)
Hans Küng (geb. 1928)
John Hick (1922-2012)
Karl Barth
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