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Embryonic Stages of Development in Humans

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Annie Muller

on 9 December 2014

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Transcript of Embryonic Stages of Development in Humans

The Cardiovascular System

By: Victor Nguyen, Annie Muller, Alviah Fullylove, Diana Sanchez, Alfredo Zaragoza
Makes up mostly vertebrates, mammals including humans, and a few invertebrates.
The circulating fluid, or blood, is enclose within blood vessels.

More structured and controlled of the blood with more precision and efficiency.

Fuxianhuia protensa is the oldest known Cardiovascular System identified.
The fossil of this Arthropod dates back to around 520 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion.
This specimen is shrimp-like in appearance and common in marine shale's since its mass extinction.
F. protensa and its taxonomic position is thought to be a basal member of the largest phylum today that includes crustaceans, insects, spiders, mites, scorpions, centipedes, king crab millipedes, and a number of extinct orders such as the Trilobita.

Tracing the Evolutionary History in the Animal Kingdom

Oxygen poor blood
(blue vessels) returns to the
heart after circulating
through your body.

Right atrium and ventricle
Pumps the blood to the
Lungs through the
Pulmonary arteries.
The lung refresh the blood
With new supply of oxygen
making it turn red. Oxygen rich blood then enters the left side
of the heart composed of the left atrium
and ventricle pumping it through the
Heart aorta to the rest of the body to supply
tissue with oxygen.

The network that delivers blood to the body’s tissues.
Process of circulation necessary for the continued life of cells, tissues, and the whole organism.
Responsible for exchanging gases and removing waste products.

What is the Cardiovascular System?

The human heart consist of four chambers: The right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, and left ventricle.
Right side receives blood low in oxygen from veins all over the body.
-Pumps blood through the pulmonary artery into lungs where it will be reoxygenated.
Left side receives oxygen rich blood from the lungs
-Pumps the blood through the aorta back out to the rest of the body through a complex network of arteries, arterioles, and capillaries.
The hearts job is to power the circulatory system, move blood all around the body, and get it back to the lungs.
With each heartbeat, blood is sent throughout our bodies, carrying oxygen and nutrients to all of our cells.

The Sophisticated Human Heart

Anatomy of the Heart

The Open Circulatory System

In an open circulatory system there is neither a heart nor capillaries as are found in humans.
Instead of a heart, there are blood vessels that act as pumps to force blood along. Replacement for capillaries includes blood vessels that join directly with open sinuses, hemolymph-filled spaces.
Common in arthropods and mollusks.
It is an inefficient system but
insects get by with this
type because they have
numerous openings in their
bodies(spiracles) that allow
the blood to come into
contact with air.

Internal organs are bathed with blood and it is much more energy efficient. The internal organs and tissues are surrounded by a circulatory fluid called hemolymph.

The Closed Circulatory System

According to the

American Heart Association
, atherosclerosis is

one of most common disorders of the circulatory system.
Atherosclerosis are caused by fatty deposits when plaque build-up in the arteries where a blood clot can form.
Too much fat, cholesterol, and calcium causes the restriction of blood to stop all together leading to a heart attack or stroke.
The risk factors for developing atherosclerosis is high-blood pressure and smoking.


Embryonic Stages of Development in Humans

Sperm fertilizes egg, the two haploid cells fuse their info. and form a zygote.

Hours later after fertilization, zygote divides and cleaves through mitosis forming solid ball of 32 cells. (Morula)

Undergoes holoblastic cleavage¹ because mom has a small amount of yolk.


As more cells are created, they secrete a fluid that forms a space in the center resulting in a hollow sphere of cells called a blastula.


Blastula organizes itself into two layers: the inner cell mass which will become the embryo and the outer layer which will become the placenta. (Cell is now called the blastocyst)
Gastulation² begins with an indentation at a singular point on the blastula; folding all the way to the other side creating a hollow head of cells.
Hollow beads of cell is two layer of tissue thick. An outer layer, the ectoderm and inner layer called the endoderm. Some cells break off between both forming the mesoderm. This in turn give rise to internal structures.

Embryo implants itself into the wall of the uterus.
Cambrian Period
"The Age of Tribolites"
540-500 mya
Ordovician Period
505 to 438 mya
Silurian Period
438 t0 408 mya
Devonian Period
"The Age of Fishes"
408 to 360 mya
Carboniferous Period
360 to 280 mya
Permian Period
280 to 248 mya
Triassic Period
248 to 208 mya
Jurassic Period
208 to 146 mya
Cretaceous Period
146 to 65 mya
Tertiary Period
65 to 1.8 mya
All life was aquatic: clams, snails, trilobites, mollusks, arthropods, brachiopods, and worms.
First vertebrates and marine invertebrates
Primitive fishes, cephalopod mollusks, and bivalves.
First air-breathing animal: scorpion.
First jawless fish. (Chordates)
First fresh water fish, sharks, lungfish, armored fish, and primitive amphibian.
First tetrapods appear toward the end of the period. Fish became abundant.
First reptiles, many insects, spiders, snails, scorpions.
Amphibians and reptiles dominant.
First mammals, turtles, bony fish
First birds, moth, fly, beetle, grasshopper, lobster, and shrimp.
Primitive crocodiles.
First crocodiles, snakes, ants, bees, and butterflies.
Earliest Humans (5 mya)
Body’s highways that allow blood to navigate from the heart to every region and back.
Size correspond with how much blood passes through.
The system of blood vessel in the human
body measures 100,000 miles.

Veins have valves from keeping the blood
from flowing backwards, it operates as
one-way swinging doors.
-Necessary because the pressure in the circulatory system keeps dropping lower and lower.
Formation of system after fertilization.
The critical period of heart development is from day 20 to day 50.
Day 21- Paired tubes link up w/ blood vessels in the embryo, connecting stalk, chorion, and yolk sac to form primitive Cardio. System.
Day 22-23: Blood circulation is started by end of third week.
Heart starts beating at the beginning of the fourth week.
Blood Vessels: Veins
Healthy diet
Therapeutic life changes
Daily physical activity
Manage stress
Quit any smoking
Maintain a healthy weight
Medicine and surgery
Angina is chest pain or discomfort that occurs when an area of your heart muscle doesn't get enough oxygen-rich blood.
Avoid large meals and rich foods
Avoid situations that make you stress
Quit smoking
Healthy diet
Take medications
Rehab/ Therapy
High blood pressure where arteries have persistently elevated blood pressure.
Lead to damage organs, kidney and heart failure, stroke.
Blood pressure 140/90 is considered Hypertension.

Lose weight
Quit smoking
Healthy diet
Reduce Sodium intake
Exercise regularly
Limit alcohol consumption and medicine
Text Citations

Allows crucial exchange of substances required for cellular metabolism.
Serves as reservoir containing about 1/6 of the total circulating blood volume.
Blood flows slower because of larger cross section.

Facilitate oxygen to all cells in the body that needs it.
Also the site where the blood picks up CO2.
Organisms with this system are able to grow larger than organisms with open-systems.
Creates large amount of pressure allowing blood to travel farther.
Small substances going through capillaries pass via diffusion because the walls are small.

Blood vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the tissues of the body.
Largest artery is the aorta and arteries smaller branches are the arterioles and capillaries.
Thick strong walls enable arteries to resist high pressures that exist near the heart.
Known as the train for your body supplementing its raw materials.
Caused when blood flow to an area of the heart decrease, impairing the delivery of oxygen and vital nutrients to the heart muscle cells.
Holoblastic Cleavage¹= When cytokinesis separates cells during division.
Gastrulation²= When Blastula reorganizes into a "three-layered structure".
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