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Exposition EFIS - Recognize your enemies
Transcript of Exposition EFIS - Recognize your enemies
Today there are 5 billions billions of them.
Although most of them are harmless, some bacteria are incredibly dangerous.
When they have enough food to live, they start to multiply.
Watch the multiplication of a bacterium called “Shigelle”. Bacteria can also live in animals or insects, intermediate hosts, and be transmitted by their bite. These germs, “Yersinia Pestis”, causing the plague, are transmitted by the rat flea.
There was a time when, this bacterium was the cause most dangerous disease in the world. Thankfully, it is rare nowadays, and a cure has been available since the 19th century. In addition to spreading via air, water, animals or insects, bacteria can also cause infection via your food.
Like these pink “Listeria”, a common bacterium that can grow on contaminated food. Although rare, the disease caused by these bacteria can be deadly. ENEMIES 2 : VIRUSES Bacteria can travel in many ways. But through the air is the easiest way to infect a lot of people. This purple “Bacillus Anthracis” or Anthrax, responsible for the deadly but very rare lung disease, travels through air. “Staphylococcus aureus” likes the skin and therefore it is very easy to catch it by direct contact ( a handshake for example) or indirectly via clothes, sheets, medical material…
It becomes very dangerous when it infects other tissues, like here in the video. In green, the living cells, and in red the cells killed by S. Aureus.
Bacteria were the first to live on the planet and very well-adapted to any kind of environment. while most of them are harmless and can be eliminated by our immune system, don’t forget that some bacteria can be fatal within hours, like this “Meningococcus”. Bacteria will probably outlive us on the Earth.
Not all viruses are spheres, the dreadful “Ebola virus” is very elongated, and crosses the whole picture here (in pink). Despite being nicely colored, it is a deadly virus leading to a hemorrhagic fever that kills 50 to 90% of infected people. Small but plentiful Living to multiply Lighter than air Deadly intermediates Water Threat Main Dish Stick or sphere Easy catch Fatal creatures Not always round
Viruses don’t have all the necessary material to multiply on their own, that’s why they are not formally considered as living creatures. To live and multiply viruses need to infect cells and use the host material to replicate. The host cell usually doesn’t survive.
Here, inside neurons - in dark green - the “rabies viruses” -in yellow- multiply. Not living creatures Here is “Legionella pneumophilia” recognizable by its tail. it is a well-known and dangerous bacterium a that spreads through air conditioning and water pipes.
It causes a pulmonary disease which is very severe for people with weak immune systems, like the elderly. ENEMIES 3 Parasites & Fungi. You may already have seen this picture: it is the first portrait of the “HIV virus” (in purple) responsible for AIDS.
This virus is very dangerous: transmitted by blood, it infects and destroys an important white blood cell population leaving the body without defence. When you are infected, a simple cold can kill you. Although treatments exist to slow down the infection, this virus is lethal in 100% of cases. Historical portrait Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in yellow and blue.
© Imagopole, Institut Pasteur Multiplication of shigelle bacteria, in black.
Pouchelet, Marcel © Inserm Anthrax bacteria in blue,
showing a pink envelope.
© Imagopole, Institut Pasteur Yersinia Pestis (grey).
© Imagopole, Institut Pasteur Legionella pneumophilia (orange).
© Imagopole, Institut Pasteur Listeria (red).
© Institut Pasteur Salmonella (yellow).
© Institut Pasteur Cell Death induced by Staphylococcusaureus. In green, the living cells, and in red the cells killed by S. Aureus.
Zahm, Jean-Marie © Inserm Meningococcus, in blue,
infecting human cells in green.
Eugène, Emmanuel © Inserm Ebola Virus (pink and blue).
© Institut Pasteur Rabies Virus (yellow) in neurons (green).
© Institut Pasteur AIDS Virus (purple), this is the first picture taken in 1983.
© Institut Pasteur
Bacteria have many different shapes. Some are lucky enough to have arms and so move faster. This is the case with“Salmonella”, a common bacterium that grows on contaminated food. Salmonella especially likes meat, but rarely kills humans. Armed to spread “Bacterium” in ancient Greek means “stick” but they can have other shapes than a stick. They can form a spiral or a sphere like here “Staphylococcus aureus”. Four Staphylococcus aureus, in grey
© Imagopole, Institut Pasteur In Latin “virus” means “poison” and there are good reasons for this name.
Viruses cannot survive on their own, they need to colonize a host to do their nasty job.
A hundred times smaller than a cell, the blue constellation shows a virus spreading at the surface of a human cell. This virus here is the “Chikungunya virus”, transmitted by mosquitoes, causing very sore joints and back bones.
Some treatments exist but are not always efficient.
Scientists are currently working on a vaccine. Chinkungunya Virus (in blue) at the surface of a human cell (orange).
© Imagopole, Institut Pasteur Smallest infectious creatures in the world. Two Flu Virus type A, in the middle.
© Institut Pasteur World of mutants The “flu virus”, an air born pathogen, has many faces. We are used to the common flu pandemics each year, but the flu virus is highly unstable. It is able to mutate and transform itself into a very harmful virus, like the one responsible for Bird flu, or Spanish flu, for which there is no vaccine available. They also live on hosts, but they are much bigger than viruses and sometimes you can even see them by naked eye. Mosquito carrying Malaria in fluorescent green.
© CEPIA, Institut Pasteur The spot shining in the body of the mosquito is the deadly parasite of the malaria disease.
Transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, it is the most common parasitic diseases on the planet. There is no definitive cure, but not all forms are deadly. Shining plague A variety of forms The world of parasites is very large. All colors and all shapes are possible.
Here in grey is “Candida Albicans”, a common fungus, harmful only for people with a weak immune system Candida Albicans (grey)
© Département des Microscopies, UFR Médecine, Tours Angiostrongylus (pink).
© Institut Pasteur In purple is “Angiostrongylus”, a microscopic worm that enters the body through the skin to infect and multiply in the lungs, and intestines. This worm is present in Central America, Africa and south east Asia. A variety of colours Hairy monsters Mushrooms are often recognizable by the hairy mould they form. “Aspergillus Fumigatus” is one of them, and one of the most dangerous mushrooms. An airborne transmission of its spores often ends in a deadly pneumonia. AspergillusFumigatus (blue).
© Institut Pasteur Schistosomia, (blue).
Dessein, Alain © Inserm It looks like a spaceship, but it is a very real organism called Schistosomia, a flat worm that infects the body through the skin.
Fortunately, there is treatment against this parasite. Battleship Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , house mite (blue).
© Institut Pasteur We cannot call them pathogens or germs, but they can cause diseases like asthma, or allergy: a hypersensitivity to non-infectious agents. Who are they? Mites for example. They often live in your house, hidden in the dust. And their droppings can cause respiratory allergies. Over sensitive ENEMIES 4 Mites & Pollens They are an exception: they are not infectious but they can harm us.
The culprit? A too sensitive immune system that shouldn’t react to these creatures. Blomia kulagini, house mite (blue).
© Institut Pasteur Dust crowd Not all mites look like insects. This one “Blomiakulagini”, looks more like a germinating potato, but lives in house dust. White burst In the body, the malaria parasite aims to attack blood cells and make them burst.
In the video, the parasite is in white and eliminates the blood cells. Blood cells (grey) infected by Malaria (white).
Pouchelet, Marcel © Inserm But respiratory allergies can also be caused by pollen. This particle of Ambrosia pollen can be very problematic for people who are allergic. Their immune system recognizes this particle as a dangerous one, hence the strong reactions… Itch is in the air Ambrosia pollen, (blue).
© Institut Pasteur ENEMIES 1 : BACTERIA We have introduced some germs to you, but remember there are billions of them. Our immune cells do not win every time, but it is very efficient and strong at recognizing, remembering and destroying them.
This is why we are still alive. Thanks to our immune system, in most cases we can defeat germs.
This is good news, because there are many more germs on earth than human beings!
Meet the most dangerous and famous ones. Exit to meet your bodyguards.