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Black Death

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Ayiesha Javier

on 7 December 2014

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Transcript of Black Death

Black Death
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Czech Republic
What is the common and scientific/medical name for the Black Death?
The Black Death has can be known in three forms: Bubonic Plague, Pneumonic Plague and Septicemic Plague but it's scientific name is a type of bacteria called "Yersinia Pestis."
What causes the disease?
How did the Black Death get it's name?
There were many ways the Black Death received it's name, but I'll only be explaining two reasons.
The first reason was how the disease had horribly killed people in a very painful way.
The last reason is how the term "Black" is considered as sad, gloomy, and devastating. The "black" in "Black Death" is referred to the dreadful effect the disease caused Europe's society.
United Kingdom
The Black Death took place in Europe from 1340s to 1350s

It killed over 30 - 60 percent of Europe's population. It took Europe more than 150 years for their population to recover.
Is the diseases infectious?
Back then medieval doctors had no idea and didn't understand the Black Death, but doctors guessed it was a punishment from God. Now we know the how the Black Death spread and causes of it.

What caused the disease were fleas and rats, they carried Yersinia Pestis (Yersinia Pestis is a type of bacteria that could infect animals and humans).

The fleas were rat fleas that lived on the back of black rats. The fleas fed on blood, so as they sucked and jumped from human to human they transmitted Yersinia pestis. But the rats were the original carriers, they're the ones that transmitted the disease to fleas. Rats would bite a victim and the human was infected. But it was more likely that fleas transmitted the Yersinia Pestis, since it was easier.

BUT scientist discovered that fleas could not have transmitted it that quickly, they had discovered that it was airborne. A perfectly healthy human would've easily caught it from just breathing, and the disease would enter to the victims lungs. Also a mere sneeze or cough from a sick person with bubonic plague could spread it to another.
Yes, the Black Death is definitely infectious.

The disease was passed from person to person when one flea jumped to another person and when they sucked their blood, they also released the disease into their body. The disease was also airborne, a person would've caught it when an infected person sneezed, cough, or breathing close to an ill person.

Also back in the 1340s people lacked hygiene and lived quite close and packed together. This made the disease spread even
Link: http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/black_death_of_1348_to_1350.htm
Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Death
What body system and organs is most affected by the disease?
Link: http://www.answers.com/Q/What_were_the_symptoms_of_Black_Death
The Pneumonic Plague is caused when Y. Pestis enters and infects the lungs. Pneumonic Plague can cause a humans
Respiratory System
to fail and organs such as the lung is what is most infected by Pneumonic Plague.
Pneumonic Plague Symptoms
Shortness of breath
Chest pain
Watery or bloody sputum

Bubonic Plague Symptoms

Gangrene(Especially around toes, fingers, lips, and the tip of your nose)
General ill feeling (malaise)
High fever (39 °C; 102 °F)
Muscle cramps[6]
heavy breathing
Coughing out blood
painful and swelling lymph gland
Septicemic Plague Symptoms

Abdominal pain
Bleeding from mouth, nose or rectum
Low blood pressure
Organ failure
Gangrene(around fingers, toes and nose)
Difficulty breathing
Septicemic plague may cause death before any symptoms occur.
Painfully swollen lymph nodes
Enlarged tonsils
Discharge from eyes
Loss of appetite/Visible weight loss
Mouth ulcers
Systemic infection of the blood
Coma is possible

Link: http://www.healthline.com/health/plague#Causes3
Link: https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100426142749AAQShZV
Pneumonic Plague
Treatment for Disease
Bubonic Plague
Bubonic Plague is when the bacteria Y. Pestis infects the
lymph system
(a.k.a the lymphatic system). The tonsils, adenoids, spleen, and thymus are organs that are part of the lymph system and are infected by the disease. But the most infected organs are the thymus
Septicemic Plague
This type of Plague happens when Y. Pestis enters the blood and the bacteria will keep multiplying. I can't find anything about which organs or system it most affects but I'm guess it is the
Circulatory System.
Treatment from Medieval days and Modern day is completely different. The treatments today are much advance.

Plague treatments should be given soon as possible when symptoms show up.

Plague Treatments:
Streptomycin, Sulfonamide, Gentamicin, Tetracyclines, Chloramphenicol, and Fluoroquinolones

Chance of recovery
If untreated the chance of dying is far more higher and is definitely life threatening and even if treated, it is still life threatening.

The mortality rate are different for each Bubonic, Septicemic, and Pneumonic Plague.

Bubonic mortality rate: 40-60 percent and if treated 10-15 percent

Septicemic mortality rate: 100 percent

Pneumonic mortality rate: 90-100 percent (When first symptoms shows, the person must be treated within 24 hours)

Immunization against Plague
Link: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/plague/pages/forms.aspx
Is the disease common in Canada, or in other countries around the world?
There is a vaccine for the plague today called "Plague Vaccine." It is effective but not as much against the Pneumonic Plague.

It was being developed by Waldemar Haffkine around 1890s.

On January 10, 1897 he was ready to test it out on a human form, he didn't test it out on another human but on himself. He only used a small amount of the vaccine to create an immune reaction. The vaccine was a success but since it was still an early form, it had side affects but the vaccine help reduce up to 50 percent of a person's mortality rate.

The Plague is not as common in Canada but it is still found around the world, except for Australia. But the most common occurrences of the disease are in Africa.

The W.H.O. ( World Health Organization) have reported to have 1000-3000 cases a year around the world, but there hasn't been a case where the plague was passed from person to person since 1924.
Link: http://www.livescience.com/36060-people-catch-plague.html
Website Title: LiveScience
Article Title: Do People Still Catch the Plague?
Publisher: TechMedia Network
Electronically Published: January 03, 2012
Date Accessed: December 04, 2014
Author: Fred Cicetti
Website Title: Yahoo! Answers
Article Title: How did the black plague get its name?
Publisher: Yahoo!
Date Accessed: December 04, 2014
Website Title: Forms
Article Title: Plague
Date Accessed: December 04, 2014
Link: http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/history/middle_ages/the_black_death/revision/6/
Website Title: BBC News
Publisher: BBC
Date Accessed: December 04, 2014
Website Title: The Black Death of 1348 to 1350
Article Title: The Black Death of 1348 to 1350
Date Accessed: December 03, 2014
Website Title: Wikipedia
Article Title: Black Death
Publisher: Wikimedia Foundation
Electronically Published: April 12, 2014
Date Accessed: December 04, 2014
Website Title: Healthline
Article Title: The Plague
Date Accessed: December 04, 2014
Website Title: Answers
Publisher: Answers Corporation
Date Accessed: December 04, 2014
Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plague_vaccine
Website Title: Wikipedia
Article Title: Plague vaccine
Publisher: Wikimedia Foundation
Electronically Published: April 12, 2014
Date Accessed: December 04, 2014
Website Title: BBC News
Publisher: BBC
Date Accessed: December 04, 2014
Link: http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/history/middle_ages/the_black_death/revision/4/
Link: http://classroom.synonym.com/were-treatments-black-death-renaissance-20443.html
Website Title: The Classroom
Article Title: What Were the Treatments for the Black Death in the Renaissance? | The Classroom | Synonym
Date Accessed: December 04, 2014
Website Title: MedicineNet
Article Title: Plague Symptoms, Causes, Treatment - Septicemic plague - MedicineNet
Date Accessed: December 04, 2014
Link: http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=141316&page=2
Link: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/plague/pages/forms.aspx
Website Title: Forms
Article Title: Plague
Date Accessed: December 04, 2014
Link: http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/plague/whocdscsredc992b.pdf
Authors: Who/cds/csr/edc/99.2 Plague Manual, Distribution Surveillance And Control Epidemiology
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