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linguistics - Chapter 9

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Mayra Busto

on 16 September 2013

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Transcript of linguistics - Chapter 9

Notes
Word play
Metonymy
Collocation
Semantics
Semantic Roles (Thematic roles)
AGENT
Words can be treated as CONTAINERS or as fulfilling ROLES
Lexical Relations
Man
1. The human species (i.e., man vs. animal)
2. Males of the human species (i.e., man vs. woman)
3. Adult males of the human species (i.e., man vs. boy)
Prototypes
best example of a thing in a category
Study Questions
1.
How is the term “prototype” used in semantics?
Conventional - General - Objective
Associative meaning
Poets, novelists, lovers, advertisers...
Conceptual meaning
Linguists and us!!!
Oddness
"The hamburger ate the boy."
NP V NP
"The table listens to the radio."
NP V NP
Semantic Features
"+" or "-"
"Hamburger" is "- animated"
"Boy" is "+ animated"
"The _______ is reading the newspaper."
THEME
INSTRUMENT
EXPERIENCER
LOCATION
SOURCE
GOAL
"
The boy
kicked
the ball
."
"
The ball
is red."
"The boy cut the rope
with a knife
."
"
The boy
feels sad."
"Did
you
hear
that noise
?"
"Conceal" is the same as "hide".
"Shallow" is the opposite to "deep".
"Daffodil" is a kind of "flower".
Synonymy
2 or + words with very closely related meaning
e.g.: answer/reply - big/large - broad/wide - buy/purchase - cab/taxi...
"She had only one answer correct in the exam."
"She had only one reply correct in the exam."

"My father purchase a large automobile."
"My dad bought a big car."
Antonymy
opposite meanings
e.g.: alive/dead - big/small - happy/sad - true/false...
Gradable
Non-gradable
big/small - rich/poor - hot/cold...
male/female - married/single - true/false...
Hyponymy
one meaning included in another one
e.g.: animal/dog - vegetable/carrot...
Superordinate terms
Co-hyponyms
same higher-level
share the same superordinate term
Homophones
same pronunciation
Homonyms
same spelling
Head
1.
a. The uppermost or forwardmost part of the body of a vertebrate, containing the brain and the eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and jaws.
b. The analogous part of an invertebrate organism.
c. The length or height of such a part: The horse lost by a head. She is two heads taller than he is.
2. The seat of the faculty of reason; intelligence, intellect, or mind: I did the figuring in my head.
3. Mental ability or aptitude: She has a good head for mathematics.
4. Freedom of choice or action: Give the child his head and see how well he solves the problems.
with polysemy, homophones, and homonyms
"Why is
6
afraid of
7
?"
"Because
7
8
9
!"
"Why are
trees
often mistaken for
dogs
?"
"Because of their
bark
."
frequently occurring together
2.
Using semantic features, how would you explain the oddness of these sentences?
(a)
The television drank my water.
(b)
His dog writes poetry.
3.
Identify the semantic roles of the seven noun phrases in this sentence.
With
her new golf club
,
Anne Marshall
whacked
the ball
from
the woods
to
the grassy area
near
the hole
and
she
suddenly felt invincible.
4.
What is the basic lexical relation between each pair of words listed here?
(a)
damp/moist
(c)
furniture/table
(e)
move/run
(b)
deep/shallow
(d)
married/single
(f)
peace/piece
5.
Which of the following opposites are gradable, non-gradable, or reversive?
(a)
absent/present
(c)
fail/pass
(e)
fill it/empty it
(b)
appear/disappear
(d)
fair/unfair
(f)
high/low
6.
Are these
blue
words examples of polysemy or metonymy?
(a)
The
pen
is mightier than the
sword
.
(b)
I had to park on the
shoulder
of the road.
(c)
Yes, I love those. I ate a whole
box
on Sunday!
(d)
The bookstore has some new
titles
in linguistics.
(e)
Computer
chips
created an important new technology.
(f)
I’m going to sue your
ass
!
A-
What is the connection between an English doctor called Peter Mark Roget and the study of lexical relations?
Peter Mark Roget (1779-1869) English doctor.
He worked on a catalogue, he grouped words together
according to their meanings.
Unlike a dictionary, his
Thesaurus of English Words
and Phrases, Classified and Arranged so as to Facilitate the Expression of Ideas and Assist in Literary Composition
, first published in 1852, used the lexical relations of synonymy and antonymy to create sets of semantically similar words. The book was an immediate success, particularly among those who liked crossword puzzles, a very popular pastime of the era. More generally known as Roget’s Thesaurus, the book has remained popular ever since.
B-
In this chapter, we discussed metonymy, but not metaphor. What is the difference between these two ways of using words?
Metaphor
(drawing a similarity between two things) and
metonymy
(drawing a contiguity between two things), are two fundamental opposite poles along which a discourse with human language is developed. It has been argued that the two poles of similarity and contiguity are fundamental ones along which the human brain is structured; in the study of human language the two poles have been called metaphor and metonymy,
He drank the whole glass.
He’s made of glass.
"
The boy

kicked

the ball
."

NP V NP
"
The boy

kicked

the ball
."

NP V NP
AGENT
THEME
"
The ball
is red."

NP
THEME
"
The boy
cut
himself
."

NP V NP
AGENT
THEME
"
The boy
cut
the rope

with
a knife
."
INSTRUMENT
"
The boy
feels sad."
"Did
you
hear
that noise
?"
EXPERIENCER
"
Jack
saw
the picture

on the wall
."
LOCATION
"
Sara
borrowed
a magazine

from George
."
SOURCE
"
She
handed
the magazine
back
to George
."
GOAL
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