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linguistics - Chapter 9
Transcript of linguistics - Chapter 9
Semantic Roles (Thematic roles)
Words can be treated as CONTAINERS or as fulfilling ROLES
1. The human species (i.e., man vs. animal)
2. Males of the human species (i.e., man vs. woman)
3. Adult males of the human species (i.e., man vs. boy)
best example of a thing in a category
How is the term “prototype” used in semantics?
Conventional - General - Objective
Poets, novelists, lovers, advertisers...
Linguists and us!!!
"The hamburger ate the boy."
NP V NP
"The table listens to the radio."
NP V NP
"+" or "-"
"Hamburger" is "- animated"
"Boy" is "+ animated"
"The _______ is reading the newspaper."
"The boy cut the rope
with a knife
"Conceal" is the same as "hide".
"Shallow" is the opposite to "deep".
"Daffodil" is a kind of "flower".
2 or + words with very closely related meaning
e.g.: answer/reply - big/large - broad/wide - buy/purchase - cab/taxi...
"She had only one answer correct in the exam."
"She had only one reply correct in the exam."
"My father purchase a large automobile."
"My dad bought a big car."
e.g.: alive/dead - big/small - happy/sad - true/false...
big/small - rich/poor - hot/cold...
male/female - married/single - true/false...
one meaning included in another one
e.g.: animal/dog - vegetable/carrot...
share the same superordinate term
a. The uppermost or forwardmost part of the body of a vertebrate, containing the brain and the eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and jaws.
b. The analogous part of an invertebrate organism.
c. The length or height of such a part: The horse lost by a head. She is two heads taller than he is.
2. The seat of the faculty of reason; intelligence, intellect, or mind: I did the figuring in my head.
3. Mental ability or aptitude: She has a good head for mathematics.
4. Freedom of choice or action: Give the child his head and see how well he solves the problems.
with polysemy, homophones, and homonyms
often mistaken for
"Because of their
frequently occurring together
Using semantic features, how would you explain the oddness of these sentences?
The television drank my water.
His dog writes poetry.
Identify the semantic roles of the seven noun phrases in this sentence.
her new golf club
the grassy area
suddenly felt invincible.
What is the basic lexical relation between each pair of words listed here?
Which of the following opposites are gradable, non-gradable, or reversive?
fill it/empty it
words examples of polysemy or metonymy?
is mightier than the
I had to park on the
of the road.
Yes, I love those. I ate a whole
The bookstore has some new
created an important new technology.
I’m going to sue your
What is the connection between an English doctor called Peter Mark Roget and the study of lexical relations?
Peter Mark Roget (1779-1869) English doctor.
He worked on a catalogue, he grouped words together
according to their meanings.
Unlike a dictionary, his
Thesaurus of English Words
and Phrases, Classified and Arranged so as to Facilitate the Expression of Ideas and Assist in Literary Composition
, first published in 1852, used the lexical relations of synonymy and antonymy to create sets of semantically similar words. The book was an immediate success, particularly among those who liked crossword puzzles, a very popular pastime of the era. More generally known as Roget’s Thesaurus, the book has remained popular ever since.
In this chapter, we discussed metonymy, but not metaphor. What is the difference between these two ways of using words?
(drawing a similarity between two things) and
(drawing a contiguity between two things), are two fundamental opposite poles along which a discourse with human language is developed. It has been argued that the two poles of similarity and contiguity are fundamental ones along which the human brain is structured; in the study of human language the two poles have been called metaphor and metonymy,
He drank the whole glass.
He’s made of glass.
NP V NP
NP V NP
NP V NP
on the wall