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European Imperialism and Colonization

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Matthew Biggart

on 28 October 2014

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Transcript of European Imperialism and Colonization

European Imperialism and Colonization
Imperialism in Southeast Asia
Pacific Rim
- Valuable raw materials,
agriculture, and OIL

- Trade and commerce

- Financial centers

- US History


Sugar cane, coffee, cocoa, rubber pineapples, banana, cocoanuts
The Dutch East India Company
- Chartered in 1602
- Controlled 3,000 mile
long chain of Islands in
South Pacific
- Malacca, Java, Sumatra,
Borneo, Bali, etc.
- SOCIAL CONTROL
Social Structure
- The Dutch living in Indonesia considered it their home
- Different than English settlement in India?
- DEIC forced farms to plant 1/5 of land for export crops (problem?!)

Dutch
Citizens
Wealthy, educated Indonesians
Plantation
Workers
- British establish trading base in Singapore (opium/silver/tea)

- Export Tin

- Chinese migrant workers

- Modern Day issues...
British Take Malayan Peninsula
- 50-70% of the Malay economy is owned by Chinese
- Revolts and violence in 1969
- http://live.wsj.com/video/chinese-migrant-reveals-hardship-in-singapore/3965828F-AD3C-40C4-A663-72A16B92E0D3.html#!3965828F-AD3C-40C4-A663-72A16B92E0D3
Malay Chinese
- Economies grew (Cash crops and goods)
- Infrastructure (harbors, roads, railroads) mostly benefited European settlers
- Region became a melting pot by European driven migration
Colonial Impact
- Manifest destiny and business interest
- Spanish American war 1898
- Christianize Filipinos
- Filipino nationalist did not want to continue colonization
- led to rebellion and war from 1899 to 1902
US Imperialism in Asia
US Annexation of Hawaii
- Midway between US and China
- Americans establish sugar plantations in Hawaii (75% of Hawaii's wealth)
- The McKinley Tariff Act, 1890
- Queen Liliuokalani, Bayonet Constitution, USS Boston
- Samuel Dole, 1894

- Penal Colony, 1788
- Wool industry
- Gold rush 1851
- Aborigines
- Commonwealth in 1901
- Secret ballot
Australia
- Disease
- Conflicts
- Resettlement (nomadic?)
- "Stolen Generations", 1906 -1969
- 100,000 children removed from families and forced to go to Westernized schools
- Trained to be servants and laborers

Aboriginal Westernization
- The Maori
- hunting, fishing, warrior culture
- English settlers, missionary groups
- Conflicts and massacres, 1845-1872
- disease
- relocation
- violation of land rights
New Zealand
The Scramble for Africa
Reasons for Imperialism:

1) Raw Materials
2) National Pride
(Social Darwinism)
3) Missionary pursuits
4) European Economic Competition

Cecil Rhodes
Africa before Europeans
- Culturally and Ethnically diverse

- 1000 languages and elasticities

- Europeans could not travel to interior (10% in 1450)

1) Disease, 2) navigable rivers, 3) Powerful African armies, 4) African controlled trade networks
European Technology
Key to European dominance
1) Maxim Gun, 1884

2) Steam powered boats

3) Quinine, 1829

4) African disunity
- Dr. Livingstone, Henry Stanley
- Stanley's explorations, 1880
- Exploitation
- King Leopold of Belgium
- His reasoning and true intentions
- 10,000,000 Congolese died
The Congo
- Berlin Conference, 1884-85
- Carves African territories
"Westernization"
- racism
- material exploration
- cultural genocide
- Division of the continent
- loss of autonomy and control
- Some resistance
- Shaka Zulu
- Ethiopia
- European Wars
- Boer War
Effects of Colonization
Nigeria
Colony: Governed internally by foreign power (Somaliland)

- Protectorate: Own internal governments but under control of outside power (Niger)

- Sphere of Influence: colonizing has control over economy and trading (Liberia)

- Economic Imperialism: country that is controlled by business interested rather than a government (India pre-1857)

Forms of Imperialism
Management Methods
Indirect Control:
Direct control:
- Royal Niger Company
- Palm oil
- 250 different ethnic groups
- Different language, culture and religion
- indirect rule with local officials
- local officials ran the day to day opperations

Negative Effects
Positive Effects
- Reduced local warfare
- Improved infrastructure
- Some economic expansion
- Literacy and lifespans increase

Imperialism:
- The seizure of territory to make a country stronger
Military expansion
political or economic control
social Darwinism
Empire
- Local ethnic government officials comply with imperial rule
- Examples: India and Nigeria
- European officials brought in to rule
- Government based on European style
- Examples: Vietnam
- Paternalism
- Assimilation
"cultural supremacy "
The Ottoman Empire
Decline
- Strategically Important
- Weak leadership

- Financial losses

- Nationalism
Geopolitics
Geopolitics: The taking of land for its strategic importance
Why was the Ottoman Empire strategically important?
- Access to the Mediterranean and Atlantic trade
Crimea
- Russia and grain exports

- Gain access to warm water port

- Crimea War, 1853

- England and France

- Florence Nightingale

- Ottoman's military and Nationalism
- Russia's persistence
The Great Game
- Rivalry and Conflict between Russia and Great Britain

- GB protecting India from Russian expansion

- Anglo - Afghan Wars
1839 - 1881
Egypt Reforms
- English/French
occupied

- Muhammad Ali

- Cash Crops
- Geopolitics
Suez Canal, 1869
- built with Egyptian labor and English/French money

- Massive Egyptian debt

- 1882 British take over canal
Persian Problems
- Natural Resources
- Raise Money and prestige
- Anglo- Persian Oil Company
- Corruption
- French/British
control, 1907
- Spheres of Influence
British Imperialism in India
Fall of the Mughals

maharajah

BEIC

Battle of Plessey

BEIC Rule

Sepoys

Jewel in the Crown

Impact
Sepoy Rebellion
Discontent

Gossip

March to Delhi,

Indians lose
Why?


The Raj
1858, British Gov direct control of India

Racist attitudes

“It is consciousness of the inherent superiority of the European which has won for us India. However well educated and clever a native may be, and however brave he may prove himself, I believe that no rank we can bestow on him would cause him to be considered an equal of the British officer.” - Lord Kitchener

Nationalism
Ram Mohun Roy

Indian National Congress (1885)

Muslim League (1906)

Partition of Bengal

China and the West
- China was self-sufficient: little interest in the West

- socially, culturally and technologically advanced

- mining, advanced agriculture

- Tea- Opium trade

- Guangzhou

- 1835 12 million Chinese addicted
Opium War
By what right do they [British merchants] . . . use the poisonous drug to injure the Chinese people? . . . I have heard that the smoking of opium is very strictly forbidden by your country; that is because the harm caused by opium is clearly understood. Since it is not permitted to do harm to your own country, then even less should you let it be passed on to the harm of other countries.

- LIN ZEXU, quoted in China’s Response to the West
- 1839
- Mostly Sea Battle
- British technology
- 1842, Treaty of Nanjing
- Hong Kong
- Extra territorial rights
Full transcript