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Cell Organelles

Cell Organelles

Shirley Madzarevic

on 14 July 2014

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Transcript of Cell Organelles

Cell Organelles
Learning Objectives
By the end of this lesson you should be able to
describe and interpret drawings and photographs of eukaryotic cells as seen under an electron microscope
be able to recognise the following structures: nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear envelope, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, mitochondria, lysosomes, chloroplasts, plasma (cell surface) membrane, centrioles, flagella and cilia;
outline the functions of the structures listed

Plant Cell

The role of the nucleus:
Retains the genetic material of the cell in the form of DNA / chromosomes which controls the cell. This control requires production of a specialised molecule called mRNA and leads to protein synthesis
Nucleolus is where rRNA and ribosomes are made
Starts the process of cell division.

Role in photosynthesis.
Be able to label
The chloroplast envelope
The stroma
The grana
Starch grains


The Mitochondrion

Formed from cell membrane

Endoplasmic reticulum

Surface view

Golgi apparatus

Formed from cell membrane
Similar to SER in structure.
Flattened stacks of cisternae.

Modifies proteins from E.R.

Labels them with receptors, which
directs them to their correct
Modified proteins are transported in vesicles

Up to 1.0 um in diameter
Surrounded by cell membrane, formed from vesicles produced by the Golgi Apparatus.
Contain enzymes (e.g. Proteases, lipases)

Isolate potentially harmful enzymes from rest of cell.
Involved in organelle or cell death


Found in almost all animal cells but NOT in plant cells
0.5 um in length and 0.2 um in diameter.
Internal structure = 9 sets of 3 microtubules
2 centrioles in each cell which lie at right angles to one another near the nucleus
Role in organising spindle fibres in cell division


Cell wall with pits and plasmodesmata.
Chloroplasts present
Large single vacuole.

Cytoplasm – thin layer confined to edge of cell.
Nucleus at edge of cell

No centrioles in higher plants
No cilia or undulipodia in higher plants.
Starch grains used for storage

No cell wall

No chloroplasts
Vacuoles if present – small and scattered.
Cytoplasm present throughout the cell
Nucleus anywhere in cell, but often central.
Centrioles present
Cilia or undulipodia often present
Glycogen granules used for storage

Comparing plant and animal cells

Found in all cells.

Composed of proteins and RNA

2 sub-units.
One large and one small.
80S type = eukaryotic cells
70S type = prokaryotic cells

Role in protein synthesis

Role in making and transporting proteins around the cell
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
More tubular in shape.
Role in making and modifying lipids and steroids
Identifying cell organelles

Animal Cells
Plant Cells
Threads which extend from cell surface of animal cells. Flagella are called undulipodia with only one found on a cell.
Very rare in plants cells
3-4 um long, could be up to 10um. They are 0.2um in diameter.
Role in moving materials
9+2 arrangement of microtubules
Role in aerobic respiration
Cellulose Cell wall
Role to provide strength and support to plant cells
Made of strands of cellulose
Plasmadesma are strands of cytoplasm that pass between adjacent cells
Organelles can be divided into 2 groups

Membrane Bound
Golgi Apparatus
Non Membrane Bound organelles
Full transcript