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Grade 9 Science Biodiversity

sooraj sajith

on 23 November 2015

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Transcript of BIODIVERSITY

What is Biodiversity?
Biodiversity is the variety of species and ecosystem on this planet, and the processes they are a part of.

GENETIC Diversity
Genetic Diversity is the variety present at the level of genes and DNA.
Species Diversity
Species Diversity is the number of different species that are represented in a given community.
ECOSYSTEM diversity
Ecosystem Diversity is the variety of ecosystems found in a region. This includes the variation in terrestrial and aquatic etc.
Populations of different species living within a community.
Species Distribution
Plant and animal species are not evenly distributed throughout the various ecosystems on earth
Where do you find the most biodiversity?
The most Biodiversity is found near the equator and tropical rainforests. Coral reefs have the most biodiversity in ocean ecosystems.
Symbiosis Relationships
1. Commensalism
One species benefits and the other stays the same and doesn't benefit nor get harmed.

Example: The Frog uses trees to protect them from the rain
Both species benefit from the relationship.

Example: Bee and flower because the Bee gets nectar and the pollen gets on the bee's fur resulting in the pollen getting spread because of the bee.
3. Parasitism
One species (host) gets harmed, the other (parasite) benefits off the host.

Example : Tape worm and humans, the tape worm slowly sucks nutrients in the human's body, the tape worm gets food for itself.
Variability in a group means that individuals are a little different and some maybe better adapted to a change in the environment, only the adapted will survive.
Importance of Variability
If all the members of that species were the same and a change in environment occurred that they could not handle, all members of that species would get wiped out. Also the more variability an ecosystem has the healthier it is.
Natural Selection
Natural selection occurs when the environment selects which individuals will survive to reproduce. These individuals will then have offspring with similar survival characteristics. Natural selection relates to variation because natural selection causes more variation.
Traits in Species
Heritable traits
Heritable traits are traits that get passed on to the offspring from the parents.
Examples : Blue eyes, curly hair, blond hair
Non-Heritable Traits
Non heritable traits are learned or acquired, not passed on like heritable traits.

Examples : Riding a bike, learning to speak English, using a laptop...
Variation in Species
Discrete variation
Discrete variation means there is very few options of what the trait will be.
There is not a lot of variation.

Examples : If you have curly hair or straight hair. Green, blue, brown or black eyes like the devil.

Continuous variation
The characteristics that have a range of forms. It's not either or, there is a lot of variation.

Examples : Height, weight.
Types of Reproduction
Asexual Reproduction
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction that involves one parent only and all the offspring is identical to the parent.
Mitosis is the cell division that happens in the body cells and each new cell has a full set of DNA.
Advantages: Quick and lots of offspring with little energy lost

Disadvantage: Identical offspring means no variation, which means one sickness or disease can wipe out a lot if the offspring
Meiosis is cell division in sex cells and each new cell has half the DNA.
Sexual Reproduction
Sexual reproduction involves two individual organisms. The offspring has a mix of traits/characteristics, half from one parent, and the other half from the other parent.Invloves sex cells called gametes.

Advantage: Lot of variation means healthier ecosystems
Disadvantage: Lot of energy is required and also a lot of time is spent
Male & Female gametes
Male gametes are called sperm cells, and female gametes are called egg cells. When they combine they make a zygote, over time the zygote will turn in to an embryo.
3 types of Pollination
Cross Pollination: This occurs when pollen from one plant combines with the ovule of another plant. The resulting plants are not identical to either parent.
Self Pollination: Pollen from the same plant combines with the ovule of the same plant, the offspring are identical.
Artificial Pollination: When the flowers are pollinated by man.
DNA, Chromosomes & Genes
Some things I would double check on your presentation:
Make sure things are spelled correctly please (and have capitals where you need them)
Add pictures where you can to help explain the information you are talking about
Make sure you have full titles so I know what you are talking about
Don't squish too much information into one of your circles...makes it look bad!
DNA: The genetic material found mainly in the nucleus of cells of living things. A DNA cells is really long if expanded, to fit such a large amount of DNA into their cells, organisms arrange the DNA into packages.

Chromosomes : These are the packages that contain DNA , each chromosome contains a lot of DNA which has genes.

Genes : A Gene is a selection/piece of DNA
Binary Fission
The cell splits into two cells , each being identical to each other and the original cell. This process only occurs in single celled organisms, very similar to mitosis, but mitosis occurs in multi-celled organisms.
Dominant & Recessive
When a trait is dominant, only one allele is required for the trait to be observed. When is trait is recessive, an individual must have two copies of a recessive allele to express that trait. If neither trait is dominant, a mixed trait is observed. Example: A red and white flower is bred, if neither red or white is dominant, then you will get a mixed colour, like pink or light red.
Punnett Square
The punnett square is a diagram that is used to predict an outcome cross or breeding experiment. You need one copy of a dominant trait for it show, and two copies of recessive traits to show.
Reduction of Biodiversity
3 Causes of Biodiversity Reduction
Extinction: This means one species of organisms is wiped out and no longer existing on this planet. If more species get extinct then our biodiversity will decrease.
Habitat Destruction: This happens when habitats of certain species get destroyed so we can build structures like buildings and houses. When this happens species lose their habitat, causing biodiversity to decrease
Over Hunting: When species are hunted so much to an extend that we put them at a risk of being endangered.
Extinction & extirpation
Extinction means that certain species is no longer existing on planet Earth.

Extirpation means no longer existing from a specific region. Because of these two factors, biodiversity on Earth is decreasing rapidly. The reason it is decreasing
is because the less species, the less biodiversity.
This means species has adaptions for a smaller set of environment conditions, which leaves them vulnerable to extinction.

A great example would be the Giant Panda, they are at great risk because the pandas only eat bamboo, which is being cut down rapidly, so the panda only has little to eat.
Cloning is to make identical copies of a certain organism.
Artificial insemination
Artificial Insemination is artificially joining male and female gametes. This differentiates from in-vitro fertilization happens outside of the body, when Artificial insemination happens in-side of the body
Biodiversity Hotspot
How can you help!
Conservation of Biodiversity
Ex-situ Conservation
Ex-situ conservation is the re-location of rare or endangered species from their natural habitat to a protected habitat.
Resource use Policies
Any animal that has the title "endangered" the provincial/federal government will raise a law that says this animal cannot be hunted, if it is a plant, this plant can't be picked.
Controlling Exotic Species
In the past letting exotic species out has been a failure, the plants germinate too fast, and usually no enemies, no one eats it either. Causing interference in the ecosystems.
Future of Biodiversity


A biodiversity hotspot is a location where there is a significant amount of biodiversity. Tropical rain forests are a good example of a biodiversity, specifically the Amazon. A major problem in the tropical rain forest is that people cut down millions of trees each year, they also remove plant for medicines, and some perfumes.
Definition: Interdependence means that species depend on each other for food, they
also depend on the ecosystem for things like shelter. One niche of a bird would be worms, the bird depends on the worm for food so they bird can live.
Resource Partitioning
When niches of species overlap, they have to share the resource, example would be a monkey eating fruits at the top of a tree and another monkey eating the fruits that have fallen from the top of the tree.
A niche describes a role of an organism in an ecosystem, what it eats, habitat...
A niche can change depending on the environment and also the relationship between the niche and species. A coyote living in the wild fills the niche of a scavenger, when a coyote living in a city has no competition, and has to kill birds, dogs to eat.
= 50% chance green(r)
=50% chance Yellow(D)
Y= Dominant
Fact #1 : In the past 60 years, 60% of the Earth’s ecosystem has been degraded. To date, we have extracted approximately 42 billion tons of resources from the Earth.

Concerns : This will really concern some people because when we are taking this much resources from the earth we are also taking resources from the animals that live off those resources. Taking that away will greatly decrease the amount of biodiversity.

Fact #2 : Some scientists estimates put the loss at up to 140,000 species per year.

Concerns : I think that at this rate of extinction we won't have enough biodiversity to fuel everyone on this planet, because every day more humans are on this planet and we will reach a point when we wont have enough resources to support life on earth.
How to prevent : At these rates of extinction we need to stop polluting ecosystems, cutting down forests, and over-hunting close to endangered species, even picking up pieces of trash can help if everybody did it.
You can help stop the deforestation of the amazon by donating to Amazon Watch, by doing this you are a part of the solution to deforestation in the Amazon! Rain forests are important because they support lots and lots of biodiversity and cutting down trees and plants will reduce the organism's food source and then they will eventually die off.
Exotic Animal
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